BMSC 220 - Topic 3

tasnimjaisee's version from 2017-09-19 16:15


Question Answer
Characteristics of waterPolar - Hbonds with itself and other polar molecules - interacts with charged molecules/ions
CarbohydratesDiscuss the role of 5 and 6 carbon sugars in the cell
LipidsDiscuss the role of polar vs. non polar parts of lipids
Nucleic acidsDiscuss the signaling functions of nucleotides
ProteinsDiscuss what defines the structural and functional characteristics of protein
Monosaccharidessugars with the basic formula (CH2O)n
RibosePentose sugar forms the backbone of RNA molecules
GlucoseHexose sugar principle source of cells energy
Cellular monosaccharides3 to 7 carbon atoms, with 3, 5, and 6 carbons commonly
What cyclic forms are most common in cells?5 and 6 carbon sugars
Configuration around carbon 1 determines?Alpha or beta designation (stereoisomerism)
Glycosidic bonds link monosaccharides together to form?Disscharide (ex. lactose/sucrose) - Oligosaccharide (3+) - Polysaccharide (100's to 1000's ex. glycogen/starch)
GlycogenBranched A - Major storage polysaccharide in animal cells
StarchBranched/unbranched A glucose polymer - Major storage polysaccharide in plants
Cellulose & chitinUnbranched polymer of B glucose molecules
CellulosePrincipal structural component of plant cell walls
ChitinComponent of fungal cell walls and the exoskeletons of crabs and insects
LipidsProvide energy storage - Cell signaling and cell recognition
Structure of fatty acidsSimplest lipids with long hydrocarbon chains - C-H bonds are non-polar resulting in hydrophobic molecule
TriacylglycerolsStore fatty acids - 3 fatty acids linked to glycerol molecule - Insoluable
Structure of triacylglycerolsStore fatty acids - 3 fatty acids linked to a glycerol
PhospholipidsAphipathic molecule - 2 fatty acids joined to polar head group - hydrophobic tail
A glycerol phospholipid consists of?2 fatty acids & 1 phosphate group - Each bound to a carbon atom in a glycerol molecule
Glyoclipids help facilitate?Cell stability - Cellular recognition
Steroid hormonesAre derivatives of cholesterol & signals molecules both within and between cells
Structure of glycolipidsConsist of a carbohydrate linked to a lipid
Why are cholestrol amphipathic?Because of polar hydroxul group
Messenger RNA (mRNA)carries information from DNA to the ribosomes
Ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA (rRNA and tRNA, respectively)protein synthesis
Components of nucleic acidsPurine and pyrimidine bases - Ribose
PurinesAdenine and guanine
Pyramidinescytosine and thymine
RNA contains ___ in place of ___Uracil - Thymine
Nucleosidesnitrogenous base linked to the ribose or deoxyribose sugar
Polymerization of Nucleic AcidsPhosphodiester bonds form between the 5' phosphate of 1 nucleotide and the 3' hydroxyl on the sugar of another
Amino acids can be grouped depending onNonpolar side chains (inside protein) - Polar chains (Hydrophillic, outside protein) - Basic side chains (+) - Acidic side chains (-)
Proteins-peptide bondsJoin amino acids - linear chains of amino acids
Protein structure consists of four levelsPrimary - Secondary - Tertiary - Quaternary
Primary structureLinear sequence of amino acids in the protein’s polypeptide chain
Secondary structureRegular arrangement of amino acids in localized regions
Tertiary structureFolding of the polypeptide chain as result of interactions between side chains of amino acids that lie in different regions of the primary sequence
What is Tertiary structure stabilized byHydrophobic interactions in protein - Hydrophillic interactions on protein surface - Disulfide cyteine residue bonds
Quarternary structureInteractions between different polypeptide chains in proteins made of more than one polypeptide