BMSC 210 - Part 4 Immunology

tasnimjaisee's version from 2017-11-21 02:28

Section 1

Question Answer
3 basic characteristics of immune responseSpecifity - Universility - Inductibility
3 basic characteristics of immune response: Explain SpecifityImmune responses per microbial pathogen; rarely effective against 2nd microbe unless 2 related microbes
What does a primary immune response follow?Primary infection
What does a secondary immune response follow?Secondary infection by the same pathogen as Primary infection
A secondary response is ___ and ___ than primary responseFaster - Greater
Which response is an example of positive memory? (Primary/Secondary)Secondary
Negative memoryPre-exposure to antigen; lessened ability to respond to antigen challenges
Which group were immune systems first studied in?Vertebrates
Innate resistancesNon-immune defense mechanisms
Innate mechanisms are ___ whereas immune responses are ___constitutive - Inducible
What does innate mechanisms mean?Effective at the time of infection; characteristics change little following infection
3 defensive systems in vertebratesBody surface - cells and molecules - Immune system
Mechanisms of innate defense differing from immune systemImmidiate - Non-specific - Consitutive/uniducable
4 Main processes of innate defnsesInflamation - Phagocytosis - Process initiated by complement - Interferon production
Inflamation: What is the molecule released at the site of injury is called?Histamine
Inflamation: Where is histamine stored?Mast cells
What does local injection of histamine into skin cause?Inflammation
During an invasion which cells' capillaries enlarge and leak?Endothelial cells
What do endothelial cells' capillaries leak during a wound?Serum proteins
Most important phagocytosis cells in the blood are?Neutrophilis and monocytes
What are Neutrophilis and monocytes called when the leave blood and enter tissues?Macrophages
Series of steps in phagocytosis? (6)Activation - Chemotaxis - Recognition & Adherence - Ingestion - Killing & digestion - Expulsion
Most important steps in phagocytosis? (2)Binding of bacterium to phagocytic cell surface - Formation of phagosome
How is a phagolysosome formed?Phagosome fusing with lysosome
In evolution, which occurred first: Complementation or Immune systems?Complementation
Proteolysiscleavage made from 1 protein activating down stream dormant component
How can a signal be amplified during processes initiated by complement?One molecule of upstream activates several downstream component
What is a series of reaction between components called?Complement cascade
Component cascade can be initiated by which pathways?Classical - Alternative
During complement cascades, when are classical pathways observed?Immune responses
During complement cascades, when are alternative pathways observed?Innate defenses
Which processes are complements involved for innate resistances? (3)Inflammatory mediators - C3b - Membrane attack complex
Explain C3b's involvement in complement innate resistanceBinds to bacteria & aids phagocytosis with macrophages
Explain membrane attack complex's involvement in complement innate resistanceForms pits & lysis (due to leaking) of bacterium
Types of IFNα, β, γ
Which IFNs occur in cells infected by viruses?α - β
How is α-IFN produced?Lymphcytes infected by viruses
How is β-IFN produced?Fibroblasts
Explain the full process of IFNs (Figure 4)Virus stimulates host cell for IFN - Uninfected cells take IFNs - Uninfected cells make AVPs
What is AVPs?Antiviral proteins
What do AVPs interfere with?Viral protein synthesis; stemmping infection

Section 2

Question Answer
Thycidides, 500BC implicationsimmune system expresses specific memory
How did Thycidides come to his conclusions?who had recovered from "the plague", but not from other illnesses, were protected
Jenner, 1798Inoculating smallox people with material from the lesions of cows with cowpox
"Cross" protection, due to "cross memory"2 pathogens, are responsible for related diseases have some features in common
Who was vaccination termed by?Pasteur
How did Pasteur's vaccines work?Attenuating pathogens so they could be used for vaccination without causing the full symptoms of the normal disease
How did virulent bacilli, responsible for chicken cholera become attenuated?Prolonged culture under anerobic conditions

Section 3

Question Answer
Roux and Yersin, 1888Showed bacterium-free filtrate of the diphtheria bacillus contains exotoxin
When blood was collected from immune animals what would happened?Clotted blood - Cell-free yellow liquid separates into serum; inactivates toxin
AntibodiesProtective molecules
Antigensantibodies specifically bind to
Passive immunityTransfer of serum of a resistant animal to an unimmunized animal
Active immunityImmunity achieved by vaccination
Are toxins antigens or antibodies?Antigens
First to demonstrate the protective role of antibodiesVon Behring and Kitasato
How did von Behring and Kitasato carry out their experiments?Antibodies to tetanus toxin and later diphtheria toxin
Charrin and Roger, 1889Immune serum can aggutinate bacteria shown with pseudomonas
Why does immune serum agguniate bacteria?Bacteria produce soluble filterates (antigens) and immune serum contains antibodies
Immune serum to a filtrate of bacterial cultures ____ with the filtrateprecipitates
PrecipitinAntibody that precipitate out of solution during antigen binding
What does a precipitin reaction provides evidence of?Antibodies can react with antigen
How do antibodies render mechanisms of innate resistance?Activation of complement - Enchancement of phagocytosis - Triggering accute inflammation
Activation of complement: When is the lytic property of immune serum lost?After the immune serum is heated to 56C for a short time
Activation of complement: What was Bordet able to show in regards to Heated immune serums?Heated immune serum will still kill when complemented with non-heated normal serum
Activation of complement: Antibodies & normal serum provides the heat-labile non-specific complement required to obtain?Lysis of bacteria
What are the antibodies that enhance phagocytosisOpsonins
What do histamines bind to?cytophilic antibody
How does acute inflammation occur?When cytophilic antibodies interact with antigen; discharge is released including histamine

Section 4

Question Answer
Humoral immunitySoluble antibodies present in immune serum
Cell-mediated immunitycell transfer of cells for immunity
Is TB a form of cell mediated or humoral immunity?Cell-mediated
Immediate-type hypersensitivityInflammation within minutes of antigen injection
Delayed type hypersensitivityInflammation within 24-72h antigen injection
Do humoral immunities have soluable antibodies or antigens?Soluble antibodies
For aggutinate bacterias, do they need soluable antibodies or antigens?Soluable antigens
self-nonself discriminationability to respond to foreign but not self molecules and self cells
autoimmune diseasesimmune system attacks cells or organs of the individual

Section 5

Question Answer
kind of antibody responsible for allergiesIgE
Antigens that induce allergic responsesAllergens
antibodies, that do not trigger acute inflammationIgA and IgG4
Explain why type I diabetes occursInsulin-producing β-cells of the pancreas are attacked by the immune system
Explain why Myasthenia Gravis occurs Neural transmitter acetylcholine receptors are damaged
Explain why autoimmune hemolytic anemia occursantibodies to red blood cells lead to their degradation
Explain why Rheumatic Heart Disease occursGroup A streptococcal infection due to the induction of immunity to heart tissue
Explain why lupus erythematosus occursantibodies are found to many different self antigens
Prototypical disease for which these generalizations was first made is?leprosy
Vaccination against tuberculosis trials result in which percent of protection?0-80%

Section 6

Question Answer
Antibody light chains cointain about how many amino acids?220
Antibody light chains cointain about how many amino acids?220, 110 vary and 110 commons
What are the different constant heavy chain regions are there of classes?IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG to IgG4
Ig's that are made up of 1 basic unitIgG and IgE
Ig's that are made up of more than 1 basic unit variying in different animalsIgA
Ig's that are made up of 5 unitsIgM
What valency does IgM have?10
Which antibody is most efficient in activating complement to cause lysis of cells?IgM
___ antibody is the most efficient in activating complement to cause lysis of cells, ___ can do so but ___ antibody cannotIgM - IgG - IgA
Lattice formation can be resulted by?Interaction of antibody and antigen
precipitin reaction is due to which formation?lattice formation
Clonial selectionmultiplication of B cells that recognize epitopes on invading bacteria
Clonal Selection TheoryAntigen select precursor cells bearing antibody receptor cause divion producine clone - Some will produce a lot of antibody
The three basic elements of clonal selection theory Selection - Cells able to respond to antigen are clonal - Self-Nonself Discrimination
What do MHC doRecognizes antigens
Where are Class I MHC found?Surface of cell body
Where are Class Il MHC found?phagocytic cells
Shallow groove in MHC bind a variety of how many amino acids?10
What do Class I MHC do?Represent wheather there is self-antigen or pathogenic antigen for the lymphocyte to act out
What do Class lI MHC do?Antigen of bacteria in groves of MHC ll are detected by HelperTcells forming Tlymphs (cytotoxins) and B lymphs (plasma)
The precursor cells for antibody production are generated in the bone marrow and are called?B Cells
Where are T cells generated?Thymus
How do T cells differ from B cells?Bind to peptides derived from antigen that are bound to MHC
What do B cells bind to?Antigens
What do CD4+ T cells bind?peptides bound to class II MHC molecules
What do CD8+ T cells bind?peptides bound to MHC class I molecules
How many different kinds of antibody molecule are there?1,000,000,000

Section 7

Question Answer
AntigenicMolecules bind to antibody
immunogenicSubstance induces antibodies
antigenic - non immunogenic moleculeHapten
The hapten conjugated to the immunogenic macromolecule is referred to as?hapten-carrier conjugate
Antibody can be generated against hapten by chemical coupling to an?Immunogenic carrier
What were the results of PLL?antibody could bind PLL and yet PLL could not induce the formation of antibody
Would you rather binding of antigen to antibody-like receptors result in induction of the antibody?No
immunoincompetentinability of the immune system to function properly
thymectomyremoval of the thymus gland
thymectomy rendered mice as?immunoincompetent
Were irraiated mice given thymus cells and antigen producing antibodies?no
basophilscirculating cell corresponding to the mast cells
It can be correctly inferred that both ____ and ____ ____ cells are required for antigen but not individuallythymus and bone marrow
Which have antibody repectors on their surfaces, bone marrow cells or thymocytesBone marrow
What is the name of the antigen surface that thymocytes stay on?Thy1
There are T cells specific for ____, but not for ____ ____foreign - self antigens
antigen-bridge 36 modelanti-PLL B is induced by the conjugate PLL-BSA
PLL is a form of?Hapten
PLL should induce anti-PLL on direct binding molecule for?Precursor cell activation
B cell recognizes (PLL or BSA)?PLL
T cell recognizes (PLL or BSA)?BSA
B cells express class ____ MHC antigens on their surfacell
What does MHC-restricted B cell/T helper cell interaction model take into consideration?T cells recognize a peptide that is itself bound to an MHC molecule

Section 8

Question Answer
Absence of helper T cells specific for self antigens result in? (2)antigen-specific inactivation: no antibody response - anti-self B cells elimination

Section 9

Question Answer
epitopearea on an antigen molecule complementary to an antibody molecule
WHICH serum epitopes are similar?MSA and RSA
Which common epitopes are in MSA and RSA?c1-c3
Which unique epitopes are in MSA and RSA?m1, m2 and r1, r2
Immunization with Antigens that Crossreact with a Self Antigen cause?Autoimmunity directed against the Self Antigen
Observation shows that iautoimmunity can sometimes be induced by?immunizing with foreign antigens that cross-react with self antigens
immunity to self antigensautoimmunity
thyroxinea molecule important in development
Non anti-thyroglobulin antibody production means?not all anti-rabbit thyroglobulin B cells are eliminated in the rabbit, - low concentration - insufficient T helper cells

Section 10

Question Answer
humoral immune deviationAntibody to an antigen precludes induces DTH by a course of immunization effective in unimmunized animals
Cell-mediated immune deviationPrevent antibody induction - Immune response to antigen is locked into a cell-mediated mode

Section 11

Question Answer
IL2Stimulate single precursor cells in the presence of a particular growth hormone for T cells
cytokinespositively or negatively regulate the growth and differentiation of other cells, including other T cells, to which they are delivered
Th1 CD4+ cells produce?IL2 - IFNg
Th2 CD4+ cells produce?IL4 - IL10
IFNγ CAN prevent?viral multiplication
IFNγ delivery to infected macrophages by pathogen-specific CD4T cellsmacrophage activation
macrophage activationincrease in metabolic pathways that are toxic for most pathogens
Which IL can increases IgG and IgE responses? IL4