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BMSC 200 Slide1 (Biochemistry and the Unity of Life)

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tasnimjaisee's version from 2017-09-13 00:37

Section

Question Answer
What do all organisms use?Processes and blocks creating nucleic acids, proteins, polysaccharides & lipids
Features of living organismsMicroscopic chemical complexity - Energy from environment - Functional body components - Sensing surrounding alternation - Self-replication and evolution
The 5 Foundations of LifeChemical, Cellular, Energy, Genetic, Evolution
What accounds account for 98% of most organismsCarbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
Why are we based in carbon rather than silicon?Stronger - Combustion releases more energy - Soluble combustive products remain active in biosphere
ConformationSpatially flexible atom arrangement (without breaking bonds)
ConfigurationAtom groups that cannot be changed without breaking bonds
Configuration is confferred by either?Double bonds and Chiral centers
Geometric (cis-trans) isomers (double bond)Same chemical formula but differ in groups with non-rotating double bond
Chiral carbon4 substituents attached; yielding 2 stereoisomers that differ in configuration
A molecule with “n” chiral carbons will have?2n stereoisomers
Stereoisomersnon-superimposable molecules that differ in configurations at chiral center
EnantiomersMirror images
DiastereomersNon mirror images
Advantages of PolymersSimplicity (reactions: polymerization and degradation), Recycable (biomolecules digested back for reproduction), Diversity of length+sequence
All cells share which fundamental features?Plasma membrane, Cytoplasm, Nucleic acid
ProkaryotesSmall (~1µm diameter) - Rapid growth and division allows quick adaptation - A single compartment (could be just nucleioid)
EukaryotesLarge (~100µm diameter), Organelles, Specializing cells
In vitro(in glass) behaviour of molecules outside the context of the organism
In vivo(in the living) studies occur within the context and complexity of organism
First Law of ThermodynamicsTotal amount of energy remains constant, though form of the energy may change
Second Law of ThermodynamicsTotal entropy (disorder) is continually increasing
Enthalpy (H)reflects the number and kinds of bonds
Entropy (S)The degree of randomness
Free energy equationG = H - TS
Free energy change equation△G = △H - T△S
△G > 0Endergonic: Non-spontaneous process, needs input of free energy to proceed
△G < 0Exergonic: Spontaneous process, releases free energy for work; proceeds until equilibrium
△G = 0No free energy change: System is at equilibrium / Frward reaction = Reverse reaction
How can cells drive thermodynamically unfavourable reactions?Coupling endergonic reactions to exergonic reactions
ATP in MetabolismEnvironmental energy to work - Links catabolic (produce ATP) and anabolic reactions
Perpetuation of biology requires that genetic information be?Stored stablly, expressed accurately, reproduced with minimal errors
What do nucleotide sequence within genes dictate?sequence of amino acids to protein, dictating protein structure
Random changes in genotype can result in?Phenotype change, if change is survival advantageous it will be selected, vice versa
Spontaniousoccurs without energy input
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