BME 603 - Ch. 6

medicineman's version from 2016-02-22 01:10


Question Answer
CholinergicTerm used to describe cells that produce and release ACh
Noradrenergic Term used to describe neurons that use NE
Glutamatergic Synapses that use glutamate
GABAergicSynapses that use GABA
PeptidergicSynapses that use peptides
Criteria for a neurotransmitter 1. Molecule must be synthesized and stored in the presynaptic neuron. 2. The molecule must be released by the presynaptic axon terminal upon stimulation. 3. The molecule, when experimentally applied, must produce a response in the postsynaptic cell that mimics the response produced by the release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron
Immunocytochemistry Used to anatomically localize particular molecules to particular cells. Molecule of interest is injected, causing an immune response and the generation of antibodies. Blood is withdrawn and the antibodies are isolated from the serum. The antibodies are then tagged with a visible marker and applied to sections of brain tissue
ImmunohistochemistryUsed to anatomically localize particular molecules to particular tissues
In situ hybridization There is a unique mRNA molecule for every polypeptide synthesized by a neuron. A complementary sequence, called a probe, can be made in the lab to bind to the mRNA sequence (hybridization)
AutoradiographyTechnique for viewing the distribution of radioactivity. Tissue is laid on a film that is sensitive to radiation. The film is then developed and images of the radioactive cells are visible as white dots
Transmitter releaseTissue slices are bathed in a solution that has a high concentration of potassium ions to cause membrane depolarization. Must be shown that neurotransmitter release occurs only when there are calcium ions in the bathing solution since they are required for neurotransmitter release. Cannot be sure that the molecule is a neurotransmitter because it could have been released as a secondary consequence of synaptic activation
Microiontophoresis Method used to show synaptic mimicry. Neurotransmitters can be dissolved in solutions with an electrical charge. A glass pipette is filled with this solution and either electrical current or pulses of high pressure are used to eject small amounts of the solution next to the postsynaptic membrane. A microelectrode in the postsynaptic neuron can be used to measure the effects
Receptor subtypes No two neurotransmitters bind to the same receptor, but one neurotransmitter can bind to many different receptors
Neuropharmacological analysis Using drugs to discover the effects of receptors
Ligand Any chemical compound that binds to a specific site on a receptor
Dale's principleThe idea that a neuron has only one neurotransmitter
Co-transmittersWhen two or more transmitters are released from one axon terminal
Cholinergic neurons Figure 6.10 (pg. 155)
DivergenceOne neurotransmitter can activate more than one receptor subtype
ConvergenceDifferent neurotransmitters affect the same effector system