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BLS 2015 Part 2 BLS for Adults

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echoecho's version from 2016-06-10 03:41

Section

BLS 2015 PART 2 BLS FOR ADULTS (PAGE 1)
OVERVIEW
Question Answer
Use adult BLS skills for adolescents and older. What are the signs of puberty?chest or underarm hair in males and any breast development in females
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BASIC FRAMEWORK FOR CPR
Question Answer
Which CPR skills you use will depend on what?1) level of training 2) experience 3) confidence (resucuer proficiency) 4) type of victim (child vs. adult) 5) availability of equipment 6) other rescuers to assist
Describe an example of "Hands-Only CPR"?single rescuer with little training and limited equipemtn who witnesses a cardiac arrest in a middle aged man might provide chest compressions until help arrives
Describe an example of "30:2 CPR"?lifeguard rescues young child or an adult in cardiac arrest will provide both chest compressions and breaths (30 compressions to 2 breaths)
Describe an example of "teamwork"?emergency responders called to care for cardiac arrest victim will perform multirescuer coordinated CPR (one rescuer does chest compressions, a second rescuer gives breaths with a bag-mask device, a third uses the defibrillator. Actions are performed at the SAME time
List the building blocks of CPR (from bottom to top of the pyramid)?1) chest compressions ("Hands-Only CPR") 2) + rescue breaths ("30:2 CPR") 3) high performance ("multirescuer coordinated CPR")
From the bottom to the top of the building blocks from above question, comment on rescuer proficiency?as you go up the pyramid, the rescuers become more trained
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HIGH PERFORMANCE RESCUE TEAMS
Question Answer
List the characteristics of a high-performance rescue team?1) because several rescuers are coordinating their efforts, this could increase the chances for successful resuscitation 2) divide tasks among team members 3) you as a team member want to deliver high-quality CPR skills to maximize your contribution to the resuscitation team effort
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MAIN COMPONENTS OF CPR
Question Answer
List the main components of CPR?1) chest compressions 2) Airway 3) Breathing
Why doe the AHA train millions of people to help save lives both in and out of the hospital?because sudden cardiac arrest remains a leading cause of death
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BLS HEALTHCARE PROVIDER ADULT CARDIAC ARREST ALGORITHM
Question Answer
***List the BLS Adult Cardiac Arrest Algorithm (2015 Update)?1) verify scene safety 2) victim is unresponsive. Shout for nearby help. Activate emergency response system via mobile device (if appropriate). Get AED and emergency equipment (or send someone to do so 3) Look for no breathing or only gasping and check pulse (simultaneously). Is pulse DEFINITELY felt within 10 seconds? If there is normal breathing and pulse, monitor until emergency responders arrive. If there NO normal breathing but has PULSE, provide rescue breathing (1 breath every 5-6 seconds, or about 10-12 breaths/min), next activate emergency response system (if not already done) after 2 minutes. Next continue rescue breathing and check pulse about every 2 minutes. If no pulse, begin CPR. If possible opioid overdose, administer naloxone if available 4) By this time, emergency response system or backup is activated, and AED and emergency equipment are retrieved or some is retrieving them 4) CPR (begin cycles of 30 compressions and 2 breaths). Use AED as soon as it is available 5) AED arrives 6) check rhythm. Shockable rhythm? If yes, shockable (give 1 shock and resume CPR immediately for about 2 minutes (until prompted by AED to allow rhythm check) and continue until ALS providers take over or victim starts to move. If the rhythm is NONSHOCKABLE, then resume CPR immediately for about 2 minutes (until prompted by AED to allow rhythm checks). Continue until ALS providers take over or victim starts to move
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ADULT 1-RESCUER BLS SEQUENCE
VERIFY SCENE SAFETY, CHECK FOR RESPONSIVENESS AND GET HELP
Question Answer
List the 5 steps that the first rescuer who arrives at the side of a potential cardiac arrest victim should perform?1) verify that the scene is safe for you and the victim. You do not want to become a victim yourself 2) check for responsiveness. Tap victim's shoulder and shout"Are you ok?" 3) if the victim is not responsive, shout for nearby help 4) activate emergency response system as appropriate in your setting. Depending on your work situation, call 911 from your phone, mobilize the code team, or notify advanced life support 5) if you are alone, get the AED/defbrillator and emergency equipment. If someone else is avilable, send that person to get it
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EMERGENCY RESPONSE SYSTEM
Question Answer
Activation of the emergency response system may vary depending on your setting and local protocol. Give 3 examples?1) hospital (activating a specific hospital code, medical emergency team, or rapid response team) 2) prehospital (activating EMS, paramedics, medic units, or advanced life support or calling for help) 3) workplace/facility (call 911 or activate specific Occupational Safety and Healt Administration or workplace emergency response protocol
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ASSESS FOR BREATHING AND PULSE
Question Answer
***To minimize delay in starting CPR, you may assess breathing at the same time as you check the pulse. This should take no more than ____ seconds?10
How do you check for breathing?1) scan victim's chest for rise and fall for no more than 10 seconds 2) if victim is breathing, monitor until additional help arrives 3) if the victim is NOT breathing or is only GASPING, this is not considered normal breathing and is a sign of cardiac arrest
How do you check the pulse?palpate the carotid pulse
*** If you do not definitely feel a pulse within ____ seconds, begin high-quality CPR starting with what?10; compressions
In all scenarios, by the time cardiac arrest is identified, what must be in place?1) emergency response system 2) backup must be activated 3) someone must be sent to retrieve the AED and emergency equipment
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AGONAL GASPS
Question Answer
Is agonal gasps normal breathing?no
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Agonal gasps may be present in the _____ minutes after sudden cardiac arrest.
Question Answer
A person who gasps usually looks like he is drawing ____ very quickly?air
The mouth is open and the jaw, head, or neck may _____with gasps?move
Two ways that agonal gasps may appear?1) forceful OR 2) weak
Why does some time pass between gasps?because they happen at a slow rate
What may the gasp sound like?1) snort 2) snore 3) groan
What is gasping a sign of?cardiac arrest
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LOCATING THE CAROTID PULSE
Question Answer
*** List the 3 steps for locating the carotid pulse?1) locate the trachea on the side closest to you), using 2 or 3 fingers 2) slide these 2 or 3 fingers into the goorve between the trachea and the muscles at the side of the neck where you can feel the carotid pulse 3) feel for a pulse for at least 5 but no more than 10 seconds. If you do not definitely feel apulse, begin CPR, starting with chest compressions
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DETERMINE NEXT ACTIONS
Question Answer
Determine next actions based on the presence of absence of what?normal breathing and pulse
List the 3 scenarios that could happen regarding breathing and pulse and state the action needed?1) if the victim is breathing normally and a pulse is present, monitor the victim 2) if the victim is NOT breathing normally BUT a PULSE is present (provide rescue breathing. Next confirm that the emergency response system has been activated. Next continue rescue breathing and check pulse about every 2 minutes. Be ready to perform high-quality CPR if you do not feel a pulse . If opioid use is suspected, consider NALOXONE if available and follow local protocol 3) if the victim is NOT breathing normally or ONLY gasping and has NO PULSE, begin high-quality CPR
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HIGH-QUALITY CPR STARTING WITH CHEST COMPRESSIONS
Question Answer
If victim is NOT breathing normally or is ONLY gasping and has NO PULSE, immediately begin what?high-quality CPR
Why should you remove clothing cover the victim's chest?1) allow for appropriate hand placement for compressions 2) allow placement of AED pads
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ATTEMPT DEFIBRILLATION WITH THE AED
Question Answer
Use the AED as soon as it arrives and follow what?the prompts
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RESUME HIGH-QUALITY CPR
Immediately resume high-quality CPR, starting with _____ _______, when advised to do by the AED. Continue to provide CPR and follow the AED prompts until advanced life support arrives
ADULT CHEST COMPRESSIONS
IMPORTANCE OF CHEST COMPRESSIONS
Question Answer
What is the reason that the more often chest compressions are interrupted (and the longer the interruptions are), the lower the blood supply to the heart and brain is?1) each time you stop chest compressions, the blood flow to the heart and brain decreases significantly 2) once compressions are resumed, it takes several compressions to increase blood flow to the heart and brain back to the levels present before the interruption
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HIGH QUALITY CHEST COMPRESSIONS
Question Answer
If the victim is not breathing normally or is only gasping and has NO PULSE, begin CPR, starting with what?chest compressions
What should single rescuers do?use the compression-to-ventilation ratio of 30 compressions to 2 breaths when giving CPR to victims OF ANY AGE
*** Important when giving chest compressions, to do what 4 things?1) compress at a rate of 100 to 120/min 2) compress the chest at least 2 inches (5 cm) 3) allow the chest to recoil (reexpand) completely after each compression 4) minimize interruptions in compressions
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DO NOT MOVE THE VICTIM DURING COMPRESSIONS
Question Answer
When are the 2 only times when you can move the victim during compressions?1) victim is in a dangerous environment (burning building) 2) if you can't perform CPR effectively in the victim's present position or location
Why is a soft surface (mattress) not good for compressions?if a person is on a soft surface, the force used to compress the chest will simply push the body into the soft surface.
Why are compressions on a firm surface important?a firm surface allows compression of the chest and heart to create blood flow
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CHEST COMPRESSION TECHNIQUE
Question Answer
*** List the 7 steps to perform chest compressions?1) positive yourself at the victim's side 2) make sure victim is lying faceup on a firm, flat surface. If victim is lying facedown, carefully roll him faceup. If you suspect victim has a head or neck injury, try to keep head, neck, torso in a line when rolling the victim to faceup position 3) position your hands and body to perform chest compressions (Pull the heel of one hand in the center of the victim's chest, on the lower half of the breastbone (sternum). Next put the heel of your other hand on top of the first hand. Next straighten your arms and position your shoulders directly over your hands 4) give chest compressions at a rate of 100-120 /min 5) press down at least 2 inches (5 cm) with each compressions (this requires hard work). For each chest compression, make sure you push striaght down on the victim's breast bone 6) at the end of each compression, make sure you allow the chest to recoil completely 7) minimize interruptions of chest compressions
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CHEST RECOIL
Question Answer
What does chest recoil allow?blood to flow into the heart
What does incomplete recoil cause?1) reduces the filling of the heart between compressions 2) reduces the blood flow created by chest compressions
True or false? Chest compressions and chest recoil / relaxation times should be about equal?true
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ALTERNATE TECHNIQUE FOR CHEST COMPRESSIONS
Question Answer
If one has arthritis and you can't push deeply during compressions, what can be done?1) put one hand on the breastbone to push on the chest 2) grasp the wrist of that hand with your other hand to support the first hand as it pushes the chest
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ADULT BREATHS
OPENING THE AIRWAY
INTRODUCTION
Question Answer
*** For breaths to be effective, the victim's airway must be open. List the 2 methods for opening the airway?1) head tilt-chin lift 2) jaw thrust
*** If a head or neck injury is suspected, which option for opening the airway should be used to reduce spine and neck movement?jaw-thrust maneuver
*** If the jaw thrust above does not work, what option for opening the airway should you use?head tilt-chain lift
If multiple rescuers are available, what would the team members do?1) one rescuer can perform a jaw thrust 2) another can provide breaths with a bag-mask device 3) third rescuer will have chest compressions
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HEAD TILT-CHIN LIFT
Question Answer
*** List the steps in performing a head-tilt chin lift?1) place one hand on the victim's forehead and push with your palm to tilt the head back 2) place the fingers of the other hand under the bony part of the lower jaw near the chin 3) lift the jaw to bring the chin forward
What does the head-chin lift relieve?airway obstruction in an unresponsive victim
What can block the upper airway when the victim is unresponsive?tongue
The Head Tilt-Chin lift lifts the ______, relieving the airway obstruction?tongue
List things to avoid with head Tilt-Chin lift?1) do not press deeply into the soft tissue under the chin because this might block the airway 2) do not close the victim's mouth completely
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JAW THRUST
Question Answer
When is the jaw thrust used?1) when the head tilt-chin lift doesn't work OR 2) with a head or neck injury if a spinal injury is suspected
If the jaw thrust does not open the airway, use what?head tilt-chin lift
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JAW-THRUST MANUEVER
Question Answer
List the 3 steps to do the jaw thrust?1) place one hand on each side of the victim's head. You may rest your elbows on the surface on which the victim is lying 2) place your fingers under the angles of the victim's lower jaw and lift with both hands, displacing the jaw forward 3) if the lips close, push the lower lip with your thumb to open the lips
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