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BLS 2015 Part 2 BLS for Adults (Page 2)

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echoecho's version from 2016-06-12 14:06

Section

BARRIER DEVICES
INTRODUCTION
Question Answer
Standard precautions include using barrier devices when giving breaths. Rescuers should replace face shields with what at the first opportunity?pocket mask
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FOUNDATIONAL FACTS
Question Answer
The risk of infection from CPR is extremely low, however, the OSHA requires that healthcare workers use standard _______ in the workplace, including during CPR?precautions
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POCKET MASK
Question Answer
For mouth-to-mask breaths, use what?pocket mask
Pocket masks have a ____ way valve?one
List the characteristics of pocket masks?diverts exhaled air, blood, or body fluids away from the rescuer
What does the 1-way valve allow regarding the rescuer's breath and victim's exhaled air?the 1-way valve allows the rescuer's breath to enter the victim's mouth and nose and diverts the victim's exhaled air from the rescuer
Some pocket masks have an _____ inlet that allows one to administer supplementary oxygen?oxygen
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USE OF A POCKET MASK
Question Answer
How should you position yourself at the victim's side, why?1) position yourself at the victim's side 2) because when performing 1-rescuer CPR you can give breaths and perform chest compressions without repositioning yourself every time you change from compressions to giving breaths
List the steps in the use of a pocket mask?1) position yourself at the victim's side 2) place the pocket mask in the victim's face, using the bridge of the nose as a guide for correct position 3) seal the pocket mask against the face (using your hand that is closer to the top of the victim's head, place the index finger and thumb along the edge of the mask and place the thumb of the other hand along the edge of the mask 4) place the remaining fingers of your second hand along the bony margins of the jaw and lift the jaw. Perform a head tilt chin lift to open the airway 5) while you lift the jaw, press firmly and completely around the outside edge of the mask to seal the pocket mask against the face 6) deliver each breath over 1 second, enough to make the victim's chest rise
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OXYGEN CONTENT OF EXHALED AIR
Question Answer
What is the % of oxygen in the air we breathe?21
What is the % of oxygen in the air we breathe out?17
Why is the air we breathe out much-needed by the victim?because we use a relatively small amount of oxygen we breathe, the air that the rescuer breathes out provides the victim much-needed oxygen
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ADULT BREATHS
Question Answer
What are the e rules to remember when interrupting chest compressions to give 2 breaths with a barrier device?1) deliver each breath over 1 second 2) note visible chest rise with each breath 3) resume chest compressions in less than 10 seconds
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BAG MASK DEVICES
Question Answer
What is a bag-mask device used for?provide positive-pressure ventilation to a victim who is not breathing or not breathing normally
What does a bag-mask device look like?a bag attached to a face mask
True or false? If the bag is self-inflating, a bag-mask device may be used with or without oxygen supply?true
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If not attached to oxygen flow, it provides about ____% oxygen from room air
Question Answer
Some bag-mask devices include a ___ way valve?one
Does the type of valve vary from one device to another?yes
List the variety of size of bag-masks and which age group would get that size?1) small - infant 2) medium - child 3) large - adult
The mask should extend from where to where?bridge of nose to cleft of the chin
The mask should cover the nose and mouth but not compress the ____?eyes
The mask contains a cup that should provide a _____ ______. If this is not present, ventilation is ineffective?airtight seal
During CPR, _____ rescuers are recommended to deliver effective ventilation, why?2; one to open the airway and seal the mask against the face and the other to squeeze the bag
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BAG-MASK VENTILATION TECHNIQUE (1 RESCUER)
Question Answer
List the steps for bag-mask ventilation technique (1 rescuer)?1) position yourself directly above the victims head 2) place the mask on the victim's face, using the bridge of the nose as a guide for correct position 3) use the E-C clamp technique to hold the mask in place while you lift the jaw to hold the airway open (Perform a head tilt. Place the mask on the face with the narrow portion at the bridge of the nose . Use the thumb and index finger of one hand to make a "C" on the side of the mask, pressing the edges of the mask to the face. Use the remaining fingers to lift the angles of the jaw (3 fingers in the form an "E") open the airway, and press the face to the mask. 4) squeeze the bag to give breaths (1 second each) while watching for chest rise. Deliver each breath over 1 second, whether or not you use supplementary oxygen)
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BAG-MASK VENTILATION TECHNIQUE (2 RESCUER+)
Question Answer
When 3 or more rescuers are present, ____ can provide more effective bag-mask ventilation than 1 rescuer? Explain?2; when 2 rescuers use the bag-mask device, 1 rescuer opens the airway with a head tilt-chin lift (or jaw thrust) and holds the mask to the face while the other rescuer squeezes the bag
Explain how the first rescuer uses his hands to seal the mask to the patient's face and lift the jaw?1) thumbs and index fingers of each hand form a "C" to seal the mask against the face 2) the 3 remaining fingers of each hand form an "E", lifting both sides of the jaw into the mask 3)the rescuer should be careful not to press too hard on the mask, because that could push the patient's jaw down and block the airway
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CRITICAL CONCEPTS = TWO RESCUERS FOR JAW THRUST AND BAG-MASK VENTILATION
Question Answer
During CPR, jaw thrust and bag-mask ventilation are more efficiently performed when ____ or more rescuers are providing ventilation?2
Describe how the above would be done?1) one rescuer must be positioned above the victim's head and use both hands to open the airay, lift the jaw and hold the mask to the face while the second rescuer squeezes the bag 2) the second rescuer is positioned at the victim's side
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ADULT 2-RESCUER BLS SEQUENCE
INTRODUCTION
Question Answer
If the rescuer encounters an unresponsive adult and other rescuers are available, what should they follow?the BLS Healthcare Provider Adult Cardiac Arrest Algorithm
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VERIFY SCENE SAFETY< CHECK FOR RESPONSIVENESS< AND GET HELP (ALGORITHM BOXES 1,2)
Question Answer
The first rescuer who arrives should perform what steps quickly and as more rescuers arrive, assign tasks?1) verify that the scene is safe for the rescuers and the victim. You don't want to become a victim yourself 2) check for responsiveness. Tap the victim's shoulder and shout "Are you ok?" 3) if the victim is not responsive, the first rescuer assesses the victim and, if no mobile phone is available, sends the second rescuer to activate the emergency response system and retrieve the AED and emergency equpment
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ASSESS FOR BREATHING AND PULSE (BOX 3)
Question Answer
For details on assessing the victim for normal breathing and a pulse, see what?Adult 1-Rescuer BLS Sequence above
DETERMINE NEXT ACTIONS (BOXES 3a, 3b)?
For details on next actions based on breathing and pulse, see what?Adult 1-Rescuer BLS Sequence above
BEGIN HIGH-QUALITY CPR, STARTING WITH CHEST COMPRESSIONS (BOX 4)?
If the victim is NOT breathing normally, or is only gasping and has no pulse, immediately do what?1) one rescuer begins high-quality CPR, starting with chest compressions. Remove or more the clothing covering the victim's chest so that you can locate appropriate hand placement for comparison. This will also allow placement of the AED pads when the AED arrives 2) once the seoncd rescuer returns and 2-rescuer CPR is provided, rescuers should switch compressors frequently (about every 2 minutes or 5 cycles, typically when the AED is analyzing the rhythm) so that CPR quality is not reduced because of fatigue (see Critical Concepts = High Performance Teams below)
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ATTEMPT DEFIBRILLATION WITH THE AED (BOXES 5,6,7)
Question Answer
Use the AED as soon as it is available and follow the _____?prompts
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RESUME HIGH-QUALITY CPR (BOX 8)
Question Answer
After shock delivery or if no shock is advised, immediately resume high-quality CPR, starting with what?chest compressions
Continue to provide CPR and follow the AED prompts until what?advanced life support providers take over OR the victim starts to breath, move or otherwise react
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CRITICAL CONCEPTS = HIGH-PERFORMANCE TEAMS
Question Answer
When giving compressions, rescuers should switch compressors after every ____ cycles of CPR (about every ___sminutes) or sooner if fatigued?5; 2
As additional rescuers arrive they can perform simulatneous tasks such as what?1) bag-mask ventilation 2) compressions 3) AED 4) other emergency equipment
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TEAM ROLES AND DUTIES FOR 2-RESCUER CPR
RESCUER TASKS
Question Answer
In 2-rescuer CPR, each rescuer has _____ tasks?specific
Regarding rescuer #1 duties, where is the rescuer's position?at the victim's side
Regarding rescuer #1 duties, make sure the victim is ______ on a firm, flat surface?faceup
Regarding rescuer #1 duties, he is to perform what?chest compressions
Regarding rescuer #1 duties, the compression rate per minute is what?100-120 / minute
Regarding rescuer #1 duties, compress the chest at least ____ inches (___ cm) for adults?2; 5
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Regarding rescuer #1 duties, allow the chest to _____ completely after each compression
Question Answer
Regarding rescuer #1 duties, minimize interruptions in compressions (try to limit any interruptions in chest compressions to < than ____ seconds)?10
Regarding rescuer #1 duties, use a compression-to-ventilation ratio of what?30:2
Regarding rescuer #1 duties, count compressions _____ _____?out loud
Regarding rescuer #2 duties, where is the rescuer's position?at the victim's head
Regarding rescuer #2 duties, maintain an open airway using either (what 2 ways)?1) head tilt-chin lift OR 2) jaw thrust
Regarding rescuer #2 duties, give breaths, watching for the chest to _____ and avoiding what?1) rise 2) excessive ventilation
Regarding rescuer #2 duties, encourage the first rescuer to do what?1) perform compressions that are deep enough, fast enough 2) allow complete chest recoil between compressions
Regarding rescuer #2 duties, when only 2 rescuers are available, switch compressors about every ____ cycles or every ___ minutes, taking less than ____ seconds to switch?5, 2, 5
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EFFECTIVE TEAM PERFORMANCE TO MINIMIZE INTERRUPTION IN COMPRESSIONS
Question Answer
Effective teams communicate _______?continuously
List the benefits of having the compressor counting out loud?1) the rescuer providing breaths can anticipate when breaths will be given 2) this will help minimize interruptions in compressors 3) will alert both rescuers when the time for a switch is approaching
If the compressor tires, chest compressions won't be effective. To reduce rescuer fatigue, what should be done?1) swtich compressors about every 5 cycles (or every 2 minutes) or sooner if needed
To minimize interruptions, perform the switch when the what is happening?when the AED is analyzing the rythmn
Take < _____ seconds to switch?5
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QUESTIONS
A 53-YEAR OLD MAN SUDDENLY COLLAPSES AND BECOMES UNRESPONSIVE AND YOU WITNESS HIM COLLAPSE AND ARE THE FIRST RESCUER TO ARRIVE AT THE SCENE. YOU FIND HIM LYING MOTIONLESS ON THE FLOOR
#1 Which is the first action you should take in this situation?
a) Activate the emergency response system
b) Start high-quality CPR, beginning with chest compressions
c) Start providing rescue breaths
d) Verify that the scene is safe for you and the victim
Answer = d
#2 The man doesn't respond when you touch his shoulders and shout "Are you OK?". What is your best next action?
a) Check his pulse
b) Start high-quality CPR
c) Start providing rescue breaths
d) Shout for nearby help
Answer = d
#3 Several rescuers respond, and you ask them to activate the emergency response and retrieve the AED and emergency equipment. As you check for a pulse and breathing, you notice that the man is gasping for air and making "snorting" sounds. You do not feel a pulsed. What is the best next action?
a) Start high-quality CPR, beginning with chest compressions
b) Monitor the victim until additional, more experienced help arrives
c) Provide rescue breathing by delivering 1 breath every 5-6 seconds
d) Find someone to help by retrieving the nearest AED
Answer = a
#4 What is the ratio of chest compressions to breaths when providing CPR to an adult?
a) 10 compressions to 2 breaths
b) 15 compressions to 2 breaths
c) 30 compressions to 2 breaths
d) 100 compressions to 2 breaths
Answer = c
#5 What are the rate and depth for chest compressions on an adult?
a) A rate of 60-80 compressions per minute and a depth of about 1 inch
b) A rate of 80-100 compressions per minute and a depth of 1 1/2 inches
c) A rate of 120-140 compressions per minute and a depth of about 2 1/2 inches
d) A rate of 100-120 compressions per minute and a depth of at least 2 inches
Answer = d
#6 What action should you taken when more rescuers arrive?
a) Assign tasks to other rescuers and rotate compressors every 2 minutes or more frequently if needed to avoid fatigue
b) Continue CPR while the AED is attached even if you are fatigued
c) Wait for the most experienced rescuer to provide direction to the team
d) Direct the team to assign a team leader and roles while you continue CPR
Answer = a
#7 If you suspect that an unresponsive victim has head or neck trauma, what is the preferred method for opening the airway?
a) Head tilt-chin lift
b) Jaw thrust
c) Head tilt-neck lift
d) Avoiding opening the airway
Answer = b