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Blood type + transfusion

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britt611's version from 2017-01-30 22:16

Section 1

Question Answer
What are blood groups based on?antigens on the RBC surface
what are alloantibodies?antibodies against a different blood type
what are 2 different types of alloantibodies?naturally occurring and acquired
what are naturally occuring alloantibodies?they are a form that does NOT require previous exposure to antigens
what are acquired alloantibodies?antibodies that develop following prior exposure to the incompatible RBC antigen. Exposure is through transufsion or across placenta
What is neonatal isoerythrolysis (NI)?hemolytic disease of the newborns
what causes NIa new born having a different blood type from dam
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Section 2

Question Answer
how many blood groups do dogs have?8 recognized, 5 other not well characterized
what are dog blood groups calledDEA (dog erythrocyte antigen)
which DEA is the most immunogenic?DEA 1.1
around ___% of dog are DEA 1.1 positive40%
do dogs have natural blood group alloantibodies?NO!
what happens if a dog is negative for DEA 1.1 become sensitized?can have hemolytic reaction if transfused again
dog blood donors must be negative for what DEA1.1 and 1.2
what are ideal canine donor blood type?negative DEA 1.1, 1.2, 3, 5, 7 and positive for DEA 4
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Section 3

Question Answer
What are blood groups in cats?A (>95%), B (<5%), AB (<1%)
____% of persians are type B20
do all cats have natural alloantibodies?all cats EXCEPT AB
Type B cats have high levels of ______ antibodiesanti-A
which cat blood type can have severe reaction if transfused with A or AB?type B
do type A or type B have more alloantibodies?type B, type A reaction will be minor and RBC will have shortened lifespan
What is the RBC type, antibodies in plasma, antigens in RBC of group A, B, AB1. A- A Blood typle, Anti-b in plasma and A antigen in RBC, 2. B - blood type B, anti-A antigen, B antigen on RBC, 3. AB- AB blood type, NO antibodies in plasma, A and B antigens on RBC
how do you get NI in cats?kitten is type A or AB and queen is type B- queen has natural anti-A antibodies and kitten ingested with colostrum
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Section 4

Question Answer
What are the blood groups in horses?7 blood groups with 7 membrane protiens (A-g); donkey 1 unique antigen
what is the most immunogenic antigens of horses? Aa and Qa
which antibodies are common causes of NI in foals?Aa and Qa
alloantibodies are found in ____% of horses10%- so this mean first transfusion are often safe
describe initial sensitization of NI in horsesfoal inhertis genes from offendig RBC antigens (usually from sire), transplacental hemorrhage or delivery, mare makes antibodies to offending RBC antigens, foal born healthy but ingest antibodies from mare
how does sensization occur?blood transfusion, vaccination with equine tissue based substance
how does subsequent breedings cause NI in foalspreviously sensitized mare is bred with sire that have offending RBC antigens. foal inherts dads RBC antigens. mare have elevated production of antbodies- that are transfered to healthy foal when ingestion of collostrum
which type of NI in foals is more dangerussubsequent breeding
what are clinical signs of NI?healthy at birth --> progressive lethargy, weakness and depression, can occur with in hours or up to 7 days, Anemia, hemoglobinemia, icterus
how do you prevent NIblood type dame and sire in advance
how do you prevent NI after foal is born?cross match mares serum and foal RBC, 2. cross match mares colostrum and foals RBC
what if the cross match is positive?DONT allow foal to nurse
what is the safest blood source to transfuse into a foal?washed RBCs from the mare
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Section 5

Question Answer
do bovine, ovine, caprine and camelids have natural alloantigensno, you can usually be okay with first transfusion
blood typing vs cross matchblood typing: determining blood group antigens by reaction with reagent antibodies, Cross match = combining recipent RBC and/or serum with donors RBC and/or serum to look for reaction
what are reasons for compatibility testing?avoid reaction with paitent already sensitized, ensure max survival of transfused cells, prevent sensitization for for future transfusions, avoid sensitization in breeding animals to prevent NI
what is a major cross match?reaction between donors RBC and recipient serum
what is a minor cross matchreaction between donor serum and recipient RBC
what are positive results for cross match testsagglutination (RBC crosslinked by antibodies), hemolysis (RBC destruction by hemolysis)
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