Blood composition & function

debbiefadoju's version from 2017-03-16 22:43



Question Answer
how to characterize blood?connective tissue (contains cells + matrix)
blood fx1 regulate extracellular environment of body - transport a nutrients, b waste products, c hormones, d heat; 2 protect body from injury and foreign invaders
hematocrit (usual percentage?)percentage by volume of blood cells; 35-50%
hematocrit in men (< or >) hematocrit in women>
blood composition1 plasma; 2 buffy coat (white blood cells) 3 red blood cells



Question Answer
plasma compositionmatrix of blood: water, ions, urea, ammonia, etc
important plasma proteinsalbumin, immunoglobins, clotting factors
albumin fx1 transport FAs and steroids; 2 regulate osmotic pressure of blood facilitating transfer of substances across capillary walls
serumplasma in which clotting protein fibrinogen has been removed
where are most plasma proteins synthesized?liver (albumin, fibrinogen)
general plasma protein fxAA source for tissue protein replacement
where are gamma globulins made?lymph tissue
gamma globulin fxconstitute antibodies

Blood cells


Question Answer
erythrocytesred blood cells
erythrocyte cell structureNO organelles; contain hemoglobin !!! no mitosis/meiosis
erythrocyte fxtransport O2 and CO2
erythrocyte last approx ____ days before bursting120 (usually in spleen/liver channels)
difference between erythrocyte and leukocyte precursor cell?NO difference - stem cell in bone marrow
when do erythrocytes lose their nuclei?when still in marrow
erythrocytes initially enter the bloodstream as ____ from marrowreticulocytes
reticulocyte cell structureno nucleus; have other organelles, but lose over the course of 1-2 days


Question Answer
leukocyteswhite blood cells
leukocyte cell structurecontain organelles; no hemoglobin
leukocyte fxprotect body from foreign invaders
types of leukocytesa granular; b agranular
after tissue deposition, _____ leukocytes live only 4-5 days, while ____ leukocytes live from months-years, depending on the typegranular; agranular
granulocyte vs. agranulocyte infectious target?granulocytes function nonspecifically (multiply quickly during infection then die off); agranulocytes work against specific targets (must persist in body to attack spec. agent)
types of granular leukocytesneutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
difference between granulocyte types?depends on dye sensitivity: neutrophils are neutral to acidic/basic dyes; eosinophils stain in acidic dyes; basophils stain in basic dye
agranulocyte typesmonocytes, lymphocytes, megakaryocytes
____ become macrophagesmonocytes
____ are the precursors to plateletsmegakaryocytes
megakaryocyte locationbone marrow, generally
leukocyte cell type composition, highest percentage -> smallestneutrophils (more than half) > lymphocytes (third) > monocytes > eosinophils > basophils (VERY little)


Question Answer
platelets aresmall portions of membrane-bround cytoplasm torn from megakaryocytes
platelet structureno nucleus; contain actin and myosin; "residuals" of ER + golgi; mitochondria; can make important enzymes including prostaglandins
platelet membrane characteradhere to injured endothelium (not to healthy)
platelet plugplatelet sticks to injured epithelium; swells, release chemicals and activate other platelets = many platelets stick to site of injury + each other
platelet half-life?8-12 days
coagulationprocess by which blood forms clots
steps of coagulation1 coagulation factors form complex- prothrombin activator; 2 prothrombin ---prothrombin activator--> thrombin; 3 fibrinogen ---thrombin-catalyzed polymerization--> fibrin threads; 4 fibrin threads attach to platelets, forming a plug = blood clot
prothrombin activatorcomplex of coagulation factors that catalyzes conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
thrombincatalyzes polymerization of fibrinogen to fibrin threads, which attach to platelets