Updated 2009-06-20 14:42
|Explain how plasma proteins help to maintain blood volume?||Plasma proteins include globulins, clotting factors, albumin. They pull fluid back into the blood vessels by oncotic pressure in response to hydrostatic pressures pushing fluid into the interstitial spaces.|
|What is hematopoiesis and where does it take place?||Blood cell formation occurs in the red bone marrow, mostly humerus and femur.|
|What stimulates the formation of red blood cells specifically?||Erythropoietin, a glycoprotein hormone, is released from the certain kidney cells if they become hypoxic. The amount of RBCs is less important than their ability to carry oxygen.|
|How does the marrow know when to provide other cells to the circulation?||Hormones. Leukocytes- interleukins (IL-3), colony-stimulating factors or CSF (granulocyte-CSF). Platelets- thrombopoietin.|
|What is the role of the lymphatics in maintenance of blood volume and components?||Collect and return interstitial fluid, including plasma protein to the blood, to help maintain fluid balance.|
|Describe the anatomy of the lymphatic system.||It is a network of vessels with a one-way flow towards the heart.|
|Name the major components of blood.||Formed elements, plasma.|
|What makes up the formed elements of blood?||RBC, WBC, platelets/thrombocytes. 45% of blood.|
|What makes up plasma?||90% water, 10% nutrients, respiratory gasses, salts, hormones, proteins. 55% of blood.|
|What is serum?||Blood serum is blood plasma without fibrinogen or the other clotting factors.|
|What is albumin and where is it produced?||It is a major plasma protein (60%) and contributes to oncotic pressure. Produced in the liver.|
|Name some major globulins.||Make up 36% of plasma proteins. Alpha & beta (mostly transport), gamma (antibodies).|
|What tissues and organs would likely be affected if there were a deficiency in globulins?||ICancer in the red bone marrow is likely as B cells grow and mature there.|
|Describe what a pluripotent/multipotent stem cell is.||A multipotent stem cell can give rise to other types of cells but it is limited in its ability to differentiate. ie. a hempcytoblast can only make blood cells and not brain or skin cells.|
|Describe the function of the erythrocyte.||It picks up oxygen in the lungs and transports it to the rest of the body and carries 20% of carbon dioxide back to the lungs.|
|How do erythrocytes affect the quality of the blood?||the more RBCs, the more viscous the blood.|
|What is meant by hemoglobin being a heterotetramer?||A heterotetramer is a tetramer derived from two or more different (but similar) monomers. Each globin molecule has 4 polypeptide chains: 2 alpha and 2 beta.|
|What is a heme group?||The heme group is the center of each globin. They contain iron in order to carry oxygen.|
|What is a reticulocyte and what makes it reticulated?||A reticulocyte is a young RBC, so called because it contains a scant reticulum (network) of clumped ribosomes.|
|What can be inferred upon seeing reticulocytes on a blood smear?||Bleeding, hemolytic anemia.|
|What is anemia and what are its causes?||Hemorrhagic anemia- blood loss. ie. bleeding ulcer. hemolytic anemia- RBC lyse. ie. mismatched blood transfusion. Aplastic anemia- destruction/inhibition of red bone marrow. ie. chemicals, viruses, ionizing radiation.|
|Describe the genesis of platelets.||Hematocytoblast -> Megakaryoblast -> Promegakaryoblast -> Megakaryocyte -> Platelets|
|How do platelets participate in clotting?||When blood vessels are ruptured or the lining is injured, platelets stick to the damaged site and form temporary plug that helps seal the break.|
|What are the platelets relationship to the spleen?||Old platelets are destroyed by phagocytosis in the spleen and by Kupffer cells in the liver.|
|What popular drug affects platelet function?||Aspirin and warfarin is used to suppress platelet function.|
|Explain the main difference between extrinsic clotting pathway and the intrinsic clotting pathway.||Clotting of blood outside the body is initiated only by the intrinsic mechanism.|
|Describe the clotting cascade from their common point, Factor ____||Factor 10 mixes with other factors to create prothrombin activator which catalyzes prothrombin to thrombin which catalyzes fibrinogen to fibrin which glue platelets together.|
|What is the prothrombin time?||The prothrombin time (PT) and its derived measures of prothrombin ratio (PR) and international normalized ratio (INR) are measures of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. They are used to determine the clotting tendency of blood.|
|What increases and decreases PT time?||Warfarin, liver damage increases PT time, and vitamin K status can increase or decrease.|
|What endogenous compounds inhibit or destabilize clotting?||Plasmin is a "clot buster." AntithrobinIII mixed with protein C, heparin are anticoagulants.|
|What is the purpose and origin of Vitamin K?||Vit K is required by the liver cells for production of clotting factors and is produced by bacteria in the intestines.|
|What drug antagonizes Vitamin K?||Coumadin thins the blood while Vit K speeds up PT time.|
|Explain blood group antigens.||A type and B type hate each other. AB will take from anyone and O can give to everyone.|
|What are some reasons to give blood or blood components?||Infusions of packed red cells are prefered for restoring oxygen-carrying capacity. Humoral immunity can also be given (B cells).|
|How would you determine matches for each blood type?||ABO and Rh antigen types.|
|When would you have to be concerned about the Rh D type of a sample?||A woman is at risk when she has a negative Rh factor and her partner has a positive Rh factor. This combination can produce a child who is Rh positive. While the mother's and baby's blood systems are separate there are times when the blood from the baby can enter into the mother's system. This can cause the mother to create antibodies against the Rh factor, thus treating an Rh positive baby like an intruder in her body. If this happens the mother is said to be sensitized.|
Earliest form is reticulocyte.
Live ~120 days.
Sometimes have banded nucleus.
Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN).
granules neutral color when stained.
Increased in bacterial infection or stress.
Loves eosin stain= granules stain red.
Connective tissue disorder
Make up less than 1% of leukocytes.
Store histamine like mast cells.
Increase in allergic reactions.
Makes up 3-7% of leukocytes.
Increase during deep, chronic infections. ex. tuberculosis.
Change to macrophages when in tissue.
Makes up 23-33% of leukocytes.
Increase during viral infections.
Large round nucleus.
|Platelets||AKA thrombocyte. |
Sequestered in spleen.
Aspirin inhibits aggregation.