Block 3 Clinical correlations

medicoblasto's version from 2016-07-14 02:30

Basal ganglia

Question Answer
Loss of enkephalinergic neurons in the striatum.Huntington’s Disease
Degeneration of caudate nucleus and subsequent enlargement of ventricles.Huntington’s Disease
Also known as St. Vitus’s dance, and typically occurs between ages 5-15.Sydenham’s Chorea:
‘Milkmaid’s grasp’, choreic movements, darting tongue, pronator sign, and behavioral or cognitive changes.Sydenham’s Chorea:
MC type of Hypokinetic DyskinesiaParkinson's disease
Bradykinesia, Tremor, Rigidity(Lead pipe rigidity), Cogwheel rigidityParkinson's disease
Syndrome of sustained muscle contractions, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, or abnormal postures.Dystonia
Characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one verbal tic. Tourette’s Syndrome:
Cognitive impairment, changes in behavior, hypo- or hyper-kinetic symptoms (dystonia, etc.)Wilson’s Disease
Kayser-Fleischer ringsWilson’s Disease
Copper accumulates mostly in the lentiform nuclei.Wilson’s Disease

Special sences

Question Answer
Can be due to lesions or herniation of the parahippocampal uncus.Olfactory hallucinations
Meningioma of the olfactory groove. Compresses olfactory tract and optic nerve, resulting in ipsilateral anosmia, optic atrophy, and contralateral papilledema.Foster Kennedy syndrome
A condition wherein a stimuli for one sense is perceived as another sense.Synesthesia
Loss of sense of tasteAgeusia
Diminished sensationHypogeusia
Enhanced sensationHypergeusia
Distorted sensationDysgeusia
Persistent abnormal tasteParageusia
Eyes move equally in each direction.Pendular nystagmus
Fast movement in one direction followed by slow return movement.Jerk nystagmus

Conduction Deafness

Question Answer
Fixation of the stapes.Otosclerosis
An inflammation of the middle ear, often accompanied/preceded by viral infection.Acute otitis media
Is the most common cause of meningitis. Incidence declines with age.Acute otitis media
Swimmer’s ear.Otitis externa

Sensorineural Deafness

Question Answer
Deterioration of the organ of Corti.Presbycusis
Increased endolymph fluid pressure which enlarges the cochlear duct.Meniere’s Disease
Paralysis of stapedius muscle, or damage to CN VII.Hyperacusis
‘ringing in the ears’; The noise can be intermittent or continuous, and varies in loudness.Tinnitus
“Hatred of Sound”; A strong negative emotional response triggered by specific soundsMisophonia


Question Answer
Disorder of oculomotor function due to bilateral lesions of the parietal and occipital lobes.Balint’s Syndrome
Optic ataxia, Optic apraxia and SimultagnosiaSymptoms of Balint’s Syndrome
Personality changes, Deficits in strategic planning, Perseveration, Release of ‘primitive’ reflexes, Abulia, Sphincteric incontinence.Frontal Lobe Syndrome
Contralateral hemi- or quadrantinopia; Right-left confusion; Finger agnosia; Agraphia; DyscalculiaGerstmann’s Syndrome
Loss of ACh neurons in nucleus basalis.Alzheimer’s
Beta-amyloid plaque accumulation.Alzheimer’s
Neurofibrillary tangles.Alzheimer’s
Degeneration of ACh neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert.Alzheimer’s
Age related ischemic damage to white matter results in dementia.Binswanger’s subcortical leukoencephalopathy

Damage to Motor Areas

Question Answer
Contralateral paralysis, hyperreflexia, BabinskiPrimary Motor Cortex (4)
ApraxiasPremotor Cortex (6)
Alien Hand SyndromeSupplementary motor area

Damage to Visual Areas

Question Answer
Damage on one side = hemianopia with macular sparing.Area 17
possible visual hallucinationsAreas 18, 19

Temporal Lobe

Question Answer
Unilateral lesion results in maybe a little hearing loss, bilateral = cortical deafness.41/42 (Primary auditory):
Contralateral upper quandrantinopia (‘pie in the sky’).Meyer’s loop
Ipsilateral anosmiaPrimary olfactory cortex (34)

Section 2