Birth of Western Society - Queens, Women & Power

isabel's version from 2015-05-16 10:12

Section 1

Question Answer
Dowery: "oxen, horse with reins, shield, spear & sword"Tacticus
Dowery: 5 CitiesChilperic to Galswinth
Dowery: Borough of LondonAlfred to Aethelflaed
Polygyny became less common as...Primogeniture became more common
Organisation of the Palace9th century, "legitimate' wife managed the palace: 'to release the king from all domestic or palace cares, leaving him free to turn his mind to the state of the Realm.'
Law forced widows to retire into the ChurchVisigothic Spain
Widows acting independantly relied onFollowings built through patronage as queen
Charlemagne's daughtersDidn't need noble son-in-laws for support, their illegitimate children had weaker royal claims
Sigibert's QueenBrunhild
Chilperic's wives2nd - Galswinth, 3rd - Fredegund
Gregory of Tours on Brunhild"Eelegant in all that she did, lovely to look at, chaste and decorous in her behaviour, wise in her generation and of good address."
Poet - reliant on / corresponded withVenatius Fortunatus - reliant on Sigibert & Brunhild's court for patronage, in correspondence with Radegund.
Pope who wrote to BrunhildGregory the Great
Tells of Brunhild's exectuionChronicle of Fredegar - Chlothar II accuses her of killing 10 kings
Life of St ColumbanusBy Jonas of Bobbio, describes Brunhild as "a second Jezebel"
Brunhild's husbands1st - Sigibert, 2nd - Merovech
Brunhild's stranded reletivesDaughter, Ingund, & grandson in North Africa.
Brunhild questioned the legitimacy of her grandsonTheudebert, king of Austria
Daugher of FredegundRigunth
Accused Fredegund of having an affairLeudast
Redwald's wifeUnclear what Bede makes of her (Jewell), power seen as unseemly by Bede (Ortenberg)
"The constant thread" in Brunhild's life... was "the desire to avenge her murdered sister Galswinth" (Jewell)
Kings: high-ranking concubines, 'proper' wives, low-ranking concubinesPattern of kings' marriages (Stafford)
Palace affairs... were political affairs & intimately affected the state of the Realm (Nelson)
Violence should be seen as:a "class characteristic" (Gradowicz-Pancer)
Merovingian Salic lawRelatively free from Roman & Christian influences, tolerated female involvement in maintaining the 'capital of honour'
Carolingian Salic lawThe Wergeld for a murder committed by a woman was three times larger than for a man - push to domesticate women.
Virgo/VirginesPowerful women virgins/honorary virgins (Ortenberg)
Honorary virginsHad finished doing their job as woman (aka marry & give birth) so could acquire some of men's functions in society (Ortenberg)
Highest praise given to womenTo behave as a man - eg St Hilda & Leoba advised men and Aethelflaed as described by William of Malmesbury
Contemporary judgement on Queens in France/EnglandFrance: based on merit; Bede: good=virgin, bad=womanly. (Ortenberg)
The actions of Brunhild & Fredegund should be seen as...... "part of the politics of survial, not of the bloodfued" (Wood)
Two extremes created by chroniclersRadegund as an ascetic, Brunhild as Jezebel (Wood)
Chronicle commissioned by EmmaEncomium Emmae Reginae - subsequently she is the first queen to be illustrated by a contemporary (Stafford)
Emma of NormandyLittle importance during first marriage, wealthy/influential during second, liaised between her sons.
Family of Emma of Normandy1st husband Aethelred, 2nd Cnut; liased between sons Edward the Confessor and Harthacnut King of Denmark.
Family of AethelflaedDaughter of Alfred the Great, Wife of Aethelred of Merica, mother of Aethelwynn, sister to Edward et al.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle on AethelflaedRuled her own dominions lawfully, "governed and defended in an honourable manner"
Wessex chronicle on AetheflaedHeld dominions on behalf of the king
Aethelflaed's rolesBuilt 13 castles/burhs, won allegiances with Norway/Scots vs Danes/Welsh, legend says she masterminded a plan to cover a Norse army with beer & set bees loose on them at Chester.
William of Malmesbury on Aethelflaed“A most powerful man-like woman” “A tower of strength for men on her own side and such a terror to the rest”
Irish chronicle on Aethelflaed"Queen of the saxons through her own cleverness"
AngelbergaWife of Louis II, name on coins & documents as "consors regni", remained politically active for 13 years after her husband's death then retired to a nunnery she had founded. Sidelined briefly for failure to have a son.
Empress Adelaide'grandmamma of Europe' Burgundy/France/Ottonian Empire. Personification of queenly power throughout the Ottonian empire.
RadegundA wife of Clothar, nun-like even as queen, astonishing almsgiving, retired to Holy Cross, Poitiers. Kept up correspondence with Gregory of Tours and Fortunatus. Patron saint of Jesus College, Cambridge. Sent relics, including from Byzantine Emperor, Justin.
Hild's power due to...... lived in "glory days" before "the patriarchal hierarchy of the church asserted itself when people got down to reading the small print" (Yoke)
Bede on Hild“her life was an example of the works of light” “innate wisdom" "special mystique of royal houses”
Hild's lifeNiece of King Edwin of Northumbria, placed in an abbey when the rival house put Oswald on the throne. Six men trained under her were elected Bishops. Abbess of Streoneshalch during the Synod of Whitby, 663. In correspondence with the Pope. Advice sought by many.
Leoba's VitaWritten by Rudolf of Fulda, seen as an honary man.
Leoba's power due to...... life on the frontier, an unsettled society, meant trust and kinship were more important than gender.
Leoba's lifeBorn to parents believed to be barren, good Latin prose & verse (letter to Boniface), oversaw training of nuns on mission, his deputy - he requested burial with her - helped Christianity earn trust in Germany (including miraculously quelling a storm) and a much sought adviser, including by Queen Hildegard.
French 9th century coronation ritualsthe duty of a Queen was 'to summon barbarous peoples to acknowledgement of the Truth'
Clothilde's grandaughterClodoswindthia was written to by Bishop Niectius of Trier on her marriage to an Arian Lombard prince, reminding her of her grandmother's leading her husband to light.
Princesses who rebelledBasina and Clothid at Poitiers Abbey, 589.
St BathildPresented as an ascetic and Jezebel in turn, the most influential queen of the 7th century (Wood)

Section 2

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