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Updated 2007-02-15 20:06

Definitions

TermDefinition
Molecule2 or more atoms joined together by a bond(s).
CellBuilding blocks of complex organisms. Membrane Bound and Utilize Energy.
LigandThe bound molecule.
PolarHigher electron density on one side of a molecule compared to another side.
Binding SiteThe region of a protein that associates with a ligand.
ProkaryotesNo Nucleus, No Organelles, Single Cell. (Bacteria)
EukaryotesHave Nucleus, Organelles, Many Cells.
PermeabilityAllows certain molecules to pass while blocking others.
DomainWhat Proteins Do.
HydrophillicLoves Water (Acid on Top of Fatty Acid)
HydrophobicHates Water
HydrolysisAdding Water during reaction (Amino Acid Coming Apart)
CondensationTaking Water Away (Amino Acid Coming Together)
Carbon fixationinorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) is converted to organic carbon (i.e. sugars).
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Characteristics

TermCharacteristics
Sub Atomic ParticlesCharge and Mass.
Amino AcidsCharge and Polarity.
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Bond Types

Bond TypeDefinition
IonicAttraction between positive and negative charges.
CovalentAtoms share a pair of electrons forming strong bond(s).
HydrogenHydrogen atom(s) shared between other atoms.
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Building Blocks to Larger Units

Building BlocksLarger Units
SugarsPolysaccharides
Fatty AcidsFats / Lipids / Membranes
Amino AcidsProteins
NucleotidesNucleic Acids
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Protein Functions

FunctionExample
EnzymeDNA Polymerase
StructuralCollagen
TransportHemoglobin
MotorMyosin
StorageCasein
SignalingInsulin
ReceptorRhodopsin
RegulatoryLactose Repressor
SpecialityAntifreeze
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Regulation of Proteins

Protein Regulation MethodMeaning
Gene ExpressionStops the Protein
CompartmentalizationSeparates the Protein (Secludes the Protein)
Allosteric ChangeConformational Change to make it not behave the same. (Active Change)
ModificationAdds a Phosphate to Change the Protein to Inactive State. (Passive Change)
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Cell Components

Cell PartFunction(s)
NucleusContains DNA and Has pores that are continuous with ER.
MitochondriaProduces ATP (The Powerhouse).
Endoplasmic ReticulumMakes membrane parts and processes proteins (gives them a route).
Golgi Apparatussynthesis and modification of molecules (continuation of ER).
CytoskeletonActin filaments (Movement in Muscles), Microtubules (Pull apart chromosomes), and Intermediate Filaments (Mechanical Strength).
ChloroplastsPhotosynthesis (CO2 and H2O to Sugar ).
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