Biomechanics Final (2)

anskorczewski12's version from 2017-05-08 01:38

Wound Healing

Question Answer
classification of wounds1.tidy (incised, no tissue loss, heal with primary intention) 2.untidy (crushed, teared, burn, tissue loss, heal with secondary intention)
types of closed woundscontrusion/bruising, abrasion, haematoma
types of open woundsincised, lacerated wound, penetrating, crushed
minor soft injury without skin break, but blood collection undercontusion or bruising
shearing of skin, surface rubbed off (exposed dermis), pain from exposed nabrasion
blood following injury or spontaneouslyhaematoma
wound from sharp object, neat, tidyincised
wound from blunt object or fall, irregular edges, untidy, car accidents might cause itlacerated wound
wound from stab (small but may have internal damage)penetrating wound
wound from blunt trauma, cause severe bleeding, tissue deathcrushed wound
types of wound healing1. primary (edges oppose, minimal scar, sutures/staples, happens in clean incised wounds) 2.secondary intention (happens when infected, major trauma, sepsis, wound left open or skin loss, wide scar) 3. tertiary intention (left wound open, then edges later opposed when favorable in healing condition)
phases of bone healing1.haematoma (0-7 days) 2.granualtion/proliferation (form callus) 3.ossification (replace callus with bone) 4.remodeling

UE Nerve Injuries

Question Answer
sensation from radial n.posterior arm/forearm, lateral dorsal hand, around thumb
motor from radial n.triceps, extensors, APL, EPL, EPB, extensor indicis (for elbow extension, wrist extension, all MP extension, thumb extension)
common injuries/symptoms with radial n.radial tunnel syndrome, compression from supinator (wrist drop, trouble grasping/releasing, using thumb to grip cup, make fist)
sensation from medial n.volar hand (thumb to middle of RF)
motor from medial n.radial side of flexors (pronators, FCR), FDS, half of FDP, FPL, abductor pollicis brevis, half of flexor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, half of lumbricals (pronation, flexion of thumb/IF/MF, thumb abduction and opposition, precision pinch
common injuries/symptoms with medial n.pronator syndrome, anterior interosseous syndrome, carpal tunnel syndrome (hand of benediction, ape hand, weak/flat pinch of pinch test, not opposing thumb, flat thenar eminence, dropping things with CTS
sensation of ulnar n.ulnar and medial palm and dorsum (part of 4th and 5th digit)
motor of ulnar n.FCU, 1/2 of FDP, abductor digiti minimi, 1/2 of lumbricals, all interossei, adductor pollicis (strong wrist flexion, ulnar deviation, flexion of 4 and 5 digits, lateral pinch
common injuries/symptoms with ulnar n.cubital tunnel syndrome, Guyon's canal compression (claw hand, 1st dorsal interossei atrophy, slight atrophy in thenar eminence, thumb falls out)
common n. diagnoses1.laceration (partial or complete) 2.traction (overstretch) 3.compression (grade as 1,2,3) 4. inflammation
radiculitisinflammed n. root
neuritisaround n. (periphery)
nerves regenerate at what speed1-3 mm/day (starting after 3-4 wks)
treatments specific to median n. injuriesring splints, suport wrist in neutral, webspace im/mobilization, elbow long arm splint in 90 elbow and pronation (for pronator tunnel), icing, elbow/wrist AROM, tendon and n. gliding, strengthening, avoid wrist flexion for carpal tunnel
treatments specific to radial n. injuriessplints (wrist cock-up, resting, dynamic for extension)
treatments specific to ulnar n. injuriespush on PIPs (blocking MCPs) to allow IP extension, splint (fill arm for cubital tunnel, RF/SF MCP restriction for lumbrical pull)
goals during acute phase of n. treatmentprotect n., prevent contracture, and injury with decreased sensation
acute phase of rehab for n. injuryimmobilization (decrease tenson and inflammation and protect) with splints; post immobilization (increase ROM, function, and educate-begin with AROM, mobilization orthosis, education)
recovery phase of n. treatmentretrain motor (estim, biofeedback, AROM, progressive resistive exercises), coordination, re/de sensitize
phases of n. injury treatment post surgeryacute (immobilize an post) and recovery--also chronic phase

Work Injuries

Question Answer
difference between consultaton and direct serviceconsulting is making modifications for all employees, project-based, billed through employer; direct service is injury management for one, from physician
OSHAoccupational safety and health act
what is a functional capacity evaluationresults match capaities to job demands (tests the general physical/cognitive abilities of the worker and job specific testing) provides rehab goals, RTW
a test that, when employee passes, they can RTWpost offer pre-employment screen
work conditioningworking on rehab of physical and cognitive abilities (that generally relate to work)
work hardeningworking on more specific aspects for that job
ergonomicsscience of work (matching job to person), addresses worker effectivenes, reaction to work load/stress, endurance level, rate of fatigue
ways to resolve ergonomics issues1)engineering improvements (tool/equipment modifications, redesign work station/methods) 2)administrative improvements (job rotation, alt. heavy and light tasks, adjust work schedules, provide recovery time)
work risk factorsposture, force, repetition, velocity/acceleration, duration of recovery time, heavy dynamic exertion, vibration
risks associated with handling materialsawkward positions, repetitive motions, forceful exertions, pressure points, statis postures
risks associated with environmentheat/cold, whole body vibration, lighting, noise, air quality
aspects of job analysisobserve workers, interview them, measure, validate what you have done to them

Lymphedema and Oncology

Question Answer
cells using bloodstream to travel elsewherematastasis
most common type of cancercarcinoma (lining of organs/skin)
types of lymphedemaprimary (hereditary, decreased development) or secondary (disease that causes damage after birth)
causes of secondary lymphedemasurgery, radiation, trauma, infection
lymphedema is normally from...primary, breast cancer, chronic venous insufficiency, parasite
signs of lymphedemaswelling, heaviness of limb, less flexible, pain, chronic infections, loss of skin elasticity (decreased ROM)
treatment for lymphedema1. manual lymphatic drainage (3-4 weeks) 2.garment, HEP, self-care
sternal precautions(12 wks) protect sternum (with pillow), don't use arms to stand, don't lift more than 5 lbs, keep arms down, don't push/pull anything, don't drive