Biology Vocab

mattf's version from 2016-01-25 05:43

Section 1

Question Answer
adaptationorganism's modification in structure, function, or behavior suitable that better suits the environment
analogous structurestructure that has a similar function in separate lineages but differs in anatomy and ancestry
artificial selectionintentional breeding of certain traits, or combinations of traits over others to produce a desirable outcome
biogeograhpystudy of the geographical distribution of organisms
catastrohpismbelief espoused by Georges Cuvier that periods of catastrophic extinctions occurred, after which repopulation of surviving species took place
evolutiondescent of organisms from common ancestors with the development of genetic and phenotypic changes over time that make them more suited to the environment
extantspecies, or other levels of taxa, that are still living
fitnessability of an organism to reproduce and pass its genes to the next fertile generation; measured against the ability of other organisms to reproduce in the same environment
fossilany past evidence of an organism that has been preserved in the Earth's crust

Section 2

Question Answer
homologous structurein evolution, a structure that is similar in different types of organisms because these organisms are derived from a common ancestor
inheritance of acquired characteristicsLamarckian belief that characteristics acquired during the lifetime of an organism can be passed on to offspring
natural selectionmechanism of evolution caused by environmental selection of organisms most fit to reproduce; results in adaptation to the envrionment
paleontologystudy of fossils that results in knowledge about the history of life
transitional fossilfossil that bears a resemblance tot two groups that in present day are classified separately
uniformitarianismbelief espoused by James Hutton that geological forces act at a continuous uniform rate
vestigal structureremains of a structure that was functional in some ancestor but is no longer function in the organism in question