Biology Unit 3 Glossary Terms- Chapter 3

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Question Answer
ADP (adenosine diphosphate)Produced after the release of energy from ATP, can be recharged to form ATP and used again.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)A compound consisting of an adenosine molecule bonded to three phosphate groups, present in all living tissue. The breakage of one phosphate linkage (to form adenosine diphosphate, ADP ) provides energy for physiological processes such as muscular contraction.
aerobic pathwayThe energy pathway requiring oxygen to produce ATP
anaerobic pathwayThe energy pathway not requiring oxygen to produce ATP. Produces much less ATP, and also release lactic acid in animals, and ethanol in plants.
autotrophOrganism that makes it own organic molecules, including glucose, from inorganic molecules; includes photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms.
basal metabolic rateAmount of energy required to maintain basic functions in a resting unstressed animal per unit of time.
C3 photosynthesis Photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide combines with a 5-carbon compound, producing two molecules of a 3-carbon compound (phosphoglyceric acid) as the first product. (Calvin cycle)
C4 photosynthesisPhotosynthesis in which carbon dioxide combines with a 3-carbon compound (pyruvic acid) to form 4-carbon molecules as the first product. (Hatch-Slack cycle)
CAM photosynthesisCrassulacean acid metabolism, a form of photosynthesis that occurs in plants.
Calvin cycle Photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide combines with a 5-carbon compound, producing two molecules of a 3-carbon compound (phosphoglyceric acid) as the first product. (C3 photosynthesis)
cellular respirationGeneral reference to energy releasing processes in cells. More specifically refers to the aerobic stage in the complete breakdown of glucose to produce ATP, which occurs in mitochondria.
chemical energyPotential energy held in the bonds between atoms in molecules.
chemoautotrophProducer organism (autotroph) that gains its energy by carrying out energy releasing reactions between inorganic molecules.
chemosynthesisProcess by which some bacteria are able to synthesis organic compounds from inorganic materials using energy released in simple chemical reactions.
chlorophyllLight-absorbing green pigment involved in photosynthesis.
chloroplastGreen organelle containing chlorophyll, present in some plant cells, in which photosynthesis takes place.
cristaeFolds of the inner membrane of mitochondria.
electron transportThe sequential transfer of electrons especially by cytochromes in cellular respiration from an oxidizable substrate to molecular oxygen by a series of oxidation-reduction reactions.
endergonicReaction that requires an input of energy to order to occur.
energyThe strength and vitality required for sustained physical or mental activity.
exergonicChemical reaction that results in a net release of energy.
fermentationStage in the breakdown of glucose that follows glycolysis when there is no oxygen present. Produces either lactic acid (in most animals) or alcohol (in most plants and micro-organisms).
glycogenA substance deposited in bodily tissues as a store of carbohydrates. It is a polysaccharide which forms glucose on hydrolysis.
glycolysisFirst stage in the breakdown of glucose. Occurs in the cyotplasm, is anaerobic and produces two molecules of ATP for each glucose molecule.
heterotrophOrganism that must obtain organic compounds by eating other organisms or their products.
kinetic energyThe energy of movement.
Krebs cycleProcess that results in the breakdown of carbohydrates to carbon dioxide; is linked to electron transport in the extraction of energy in the form of ATP from carbohydrates.
lactic acidProduct of the breakdown of pyruvate in the absence of oxygen; by-product of anaerobic respiration in animals.
light compensation pointThe light intensity at which the rate of carbon-dioxide produced by cellular respiration equals the rate that carbon dioxide is used in photosynthesis in plants.
mitochondriaOrganelle in which aerobic cellular respiration occurs; composed of many layers of folded membrane.
oxygen debtThe amount of oxygen required to metabolise lactic acid built up during a period of anaerobic respiration.
photosynthesisCellular process in which light energy is trapped by chlorophyll and used to combine carbon dioxide and water to make glucose.
potential energyStored energy, as in the energy in chemical bonds.
pyruvateThree carbon molecule that is a product of glycolysis; is a substrate for the Krebs cycle.
starchA polysaccharide which functions as a carbohydrate store and is an important constituent of the human diet.