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Biology, Protein Synthesis

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jodorigu's version from 2015-05-25 01:31

Section 1

Question Answer
overall flow of information during protein synthesis (DNA-RNA)Nucleus to Cytoplasm
TranscriptionDNA>RNA info converted from DNA dialect to RNA dialect (Nucleus)
TranslationRNA> PROTEIN info converted from Nucleic Acid "language" into protein "Language" (cytoplasm)
genetic code based on triplets of RNA20 kinds of amino acid divided evenly
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Section 2

Question Answer
Condon3-base sequence in RNA that specifies a specific Amino Acid
Start CondonAUG signals start of code for polypeptide
Stop CondonUAA, UAG,UGA siganl end of code for polypeptide
AU
TA
CG
GC
DNA ATCG
RNAUAGC
Anticondon3 base sequence complementary to a condon for the amino acid.
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Section 3

Question Answer
mRNAmessenger RNA , the code for the protein being synthesized, specifies oder of amino acids in polypeptide
tRNAtransfer RNA, translates the condons in mRNA to amino acid sequence of polypeptide, folds RNA in 3D shape, attachment site for amino acid
ribosomeputs together the amino acids after the tRNA's put them in the right order, move along the mRNA as translation proceeds
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Section 4

Question Answer
structure of a ribosomeLarge and small subunit with binding spots
large subunittwo binding sites for the trna
small subunitbinding site for the mRNA
p sitetRNA w/growing polypeptide
A sitetRNA w/next amino acid to add
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Section 5

Question Answer
InitiationRibosome assembles with mRNA plus first RNA
ElongationtRNA brings amino acids in right order (ribosomes for polypeptide)
TerminationRibosome releases polypeptide & falls appart.
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Section 6

Question Answer
Chromosomal mutationlarge parts of chromosomes, many genes, large scale
Point Mutation one nucleotide base, alters one gene only, small scale
Subtitutionpoint mutation, one base is substituted by another
Reading Frame Shiftsmutation shifts the reading of a condon
Deletion Point mutation one base is left out, shifts reading
Mutagensphysical or chemical agents that increase number of mutations beyond sponteneous
Physical mutagensxrays-ultaviolet light, radiation
Chemical Mutagenscause chemichal changes in DNA
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