BIOLOGY Plant and Animal Cells

hasanahatesscience's version from 2018-02-07 02:08

Section 1

Question Answer
What is a Prokaryotic cell?this cell DOES NOT HAVE STRUCTURES surronded by the MEMBRANE. NO NUCLEAS only FEW INTERNAL STRUCTURES
What is the cell membrane?the OUTER membrane of cell that CONTROLS MOVEMENT IN AND OUT of the cell. double LAYER composed of LIPiDS, PROTEIN CARBOHYRDRATES AND CHOLESTEROL. Selectively permeable, only certain materials can pass thru.
what is the cell wall?most commonly FOUND IN PLANT CELLS OR BACTERIA. Supports and protects cells, rigid and not selective
What is the nucleus?DIRECTS cell activities. SEPERATED FROM CYTOPLASM BY NUCLEAR MEMBRANE. this contains genetic material (DNA) centre of the cell, has chromosones
what is the nuclear membrane?surronds nucleus, made of TWO LAYERS, OPENINGS ALLOW material (RNA) to enter and leave nucleus.
What are chromosones?in nucleus, contains dna, instructions for traits and characteristics. visible during cell division. chromatin-when it is not dividing
what is the nucleolus?small sphere inside nucleus. contains RNA to build proteins, subunits from ribosomes
what is cytoplasm/cytosol?is a gel like mixture where all work is done. surronded by cell membrane.
what is smooth endoplasmic reticulum (E.R)?moves materials in cell. lacks Ribosomes, Produces and forms LIPIDS. high conc of smooth er in cells that produce hormones
what is rough endoplasmic reticulum?Ribosomes embedded in surface, allows proteins to be transported out of cell. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
what are ribosomes?each cell contains these. this is INVOLVED IN THE PROCESS OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS. found on the ER, floating throughout the cell
what is the mitochondriaProduces energy through CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Breaks down FAT and CARBS. The power house of the cell. Creates ATP for cellular function + energy. Only works in presence of Oxygen/nutrients.
Golgi bodies?protein packaging plant, puts finishing touches on proteins, and some proteins are stored.breaks off and forms vesicles. MOVES MATERIALS WITHIN CELL AND OUT OF THE CELL
Lysosome?Digestive 'plant" for PROTEINS FAT AND CARBS. contains enzymes which break down macromolecules into smaller particles. transports undigested material to CELL MEMBRANE for removal (bacteria, foreign particles)
Vacuoles?membrane bound sacs FOR STORAGE, DIGESTION and WASTE REMOVAL. contains water solution. helps plant maintain shape (turgor pressure as vacuole absorbs water)
Vesicles?small and many sacs in animal cells. contain vesicles for storage, transport and digests substances in the cell
chloroplast?found in PLANT CELLS and NEVER in ANIMAL CELLS. has GREEN CHLOROPHYLL. produces energy for plant cell as photosynthesis takes place. makes glucose and O2 from h20 and co2
Centrioles?only found in ANIMAL CELLS and some plant cells. key role in cell division. (mitosis) only PRESENT during CELL DIVISION.
what is the function of peroxisome? (both in plant and animal)contains enzymes which break down/converts fatty acids to sugars (metabolism) formed from ER. ex h202->h20+o2. synthesize bile acids and cholesterol
what is the function of plastids? (plant)storage containers w/ own DNA, used for photosynthesis (chloroplast (pigment chlorophyll), amyloplast (starch, unpigmented, storage), chromoplast ( pigmint storage other than chlorophyll)
what is the function of membrane vacuole? (plant)controls entry and exit of materials into vacuole
what is the function of a cytoskelton? (animal)protein fibres that provide structure to cells. anchors organelles and allows for movement within cytoplasm. 3 types: microtubles (cell division, cell shape, movement. intermediate filaments (cell shape and anchors organelles) and microfilaments (cell shape, cell division, muscle contraction)

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