Biology Final Study Guide

bikiwiro's version from 2015-05-13 12:41

General Ecology Vocab

Question Answer
NicheThe fundamental role played by a species in a community. Includes behavior, diet, reproductive patterns, and everything else about that animal.
EcologyThe study of relationships between living organisms and their environment.
EcosystemA community and its abiotic environment.
PopulationA group of organisms of the same species living in the same area at the same time and are capable of interbreeding.
CommunityA group of populations living and interacting in a habitat.
HabitatThe physical area in which individuals of a certain species can usually be found.
SpeciesA group of organisms which look alike and can interbreed successfully.
BiomeA major zone of the ecosystem.
ClimateAverage temperature and precipitation.
WeatherDay-to-day conditions.
SuccessionA process of change that results as a community returns to stability.
Primary SuccessionWhere life starts on an abiotic surface.
Secondary SuccessionWhere disturbances leave the soil intact.
Climax CommunityA community that results when a progression of species replacements stabilizes.
Keystone SpeciesIf you wipe out this species, you will drastically alter the community.
MutualismInteractions where both organisms benefit.
CommensalismInteractions where one organism benefits, and the other organism is neither harmed nor benefits.
ParasitismAn interaction in which one organism lives inside or on another organism and harms it.
CompetitionWill eventually lead to the exclusion/extinction of one of the competitors.
PredationAn interaction in which one animal (the predator) captures and feeds on another animal (the prey)
SymbiosisNo organisms are harmed (2 types - mutualism & commensalism)

Energy-Related Ecology Vocab

Question Answer
Food ChainA series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.
Food WebA network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem.
DecomposerOrganism that breaks down and obtains energy from detritus.
DetritivoreOrganism that feeds on plant and animal remains and other dead matter.
DetritusDead organic matter.
Trophic LevelA step in a food chain or food web.
Ecological PyramidShow the relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a given food chain or food web.
About what percent of energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next?10%
Where does most of the energy in organisms go?Heat
Trophic RelationshipsDetermine an ecosystem's routes of energy flow and chemical cycling.

Evolution Vocab

Question Answer
Homologous StructuresStructures that are shared by related species and that have been inherited from a common ancestor.
Analogous StructuresBody parts that share common function, but not structure.
Vestigial StructuresStructures that are inherited from ancestors but have lost much or all of their original function due to different selection pressures acting on the descendant.
Punctuated EquilibriumPattern of evolution in which long stable periods are interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change.
GradualismThe evolution of a species by small genetic changes over long periods of time.
Endosymbiotic TheoryTheory which proposes that a symbiotic relationship evolved over time between primitive eukaryotic cells (prokaryotes which develop internal cell membranes) and the prokaryotic cells within them.
Name the types of isolation and describe themgeographical, ecological, temporal, behavior, mechanical, & reproductive
Natural SelectionProcess by which organisms that are most suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully.
EvolutionChange over time.
Half-lifeLength of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay.
MalthusEnglish economist who, in 1798, reasoned that if the human population grew unchecked, there wouldn't be enough living space and food for everyone.
DarwinEnglish scientist born in 1809 who created a theory of evolution and the idea of natural selection.