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BIOLOGY EXAM

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tasnimjaisee's version from 2017-04-27 23:45

Section 1

Question Answer
Are metabolic disorders inherited? Yes, inborn errors of metabolism
What is phenylalanine?Essential amino acid & precursor for Tyrosine
What are the effects of Phenylalanine metabolic pathway diseases?Erases products & creates toxins
One Gene - One Enzyme Hypothesisdifferent gene coded for each different enzyme
Order of arginineOrnithine and citrulline
Hemoglobinoxygen transport; multisubunit
Abnormal hemoglobin causes?Sickling of red blood cells
Why do some genes encode RNA?Protein coding expression
How protein folds and interact depend on?Shape and charge
Side chainsCharge and pH
Pleiotropywhen a mutaton has a variety of phenotypic effects
Mendel formulated rules for inheritance without knowledge of?DNA, chromosomes, or cell division
Cross polinationTransfers pollen with brush and removes anthers
SelfingTransfers pollen to stigma
LocusAddress
independent additive ruleP(A) + P(B) - [P(A) × P(B)]
Mutually exclusive additive ruleP(A) + P(B)
When is there evidence for allele segregationF2
When is there evidence for dominanceF1
Chi TestMatch up x^2 to df
haplo-insufficiencyone good copy of a gene does not make enough of the gene product
key to genetics as a sciencepredictive and mathematical
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
Leptonenelong single threads
ZygoteneSingle threads
PachyteneThick fully synapsed
DiploteneReplicated and in 4s
DiakinesisFurther of diplotene
Non-disjuncJonshomologs don't dissociate in anaphase I of meiosis
CytogeneticsStains to identify specific chromosomes and to analyze their structures
Cytogenetics StepsCentrifuge cells, culture in vitro, stimulate division, disable spindles, add hypotonic solutions
Euploidmultiple of the monoploid number
Aneuploidabnormal number chromosomes
Monosomicone missing chromosome
Trisomicone extra chromosome
higher ploidy level, will look the same as the one with?lower ploidy levels
Aneuploidy in humansnon-disjuncJon errors in meiosis
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Section 3

Question Answer
in the heterozygotephenotype is same as original mutants; doesn't mutate doesn't complete
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Section 4

Question Answer
Test Crossrecomb/(recomb+parent)
Chiasmatasites of crossing over
RF(185 + 188) / 1000
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Section 5

Question Answer
The central dogmaDNA, (trancription), RNA, (translation), amino acid, (folding), protein
Can RNA replicate itself?Yes
Pulse-Chase Labelinglabeled RNA is exclusively in the nucleus, (synthesized and transported) later found in cytplasm
Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs)structural components of spliceosomes
Messenger RNAs (mRNAs)intermediates that carry gene,c informa,on from DNA to the ribosomes
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs)adaptors between amino acids and the codons in mRNA.
Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs)structural and catalytic components of ribosomes
Micro RNAs (miRNAs)short single-stranded RNAs that block expression of complementary mRNAs
RNA moves in which direction?5' -> 3'
RNA is complementary to which strand?template
RNA is identical to which strand?nontemplate, u instead of t
Initiation of RNA ChainsRNA polym binds to promoter region, unwinds and phosphodiester bonds happened
differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic transcription - RNA polymerase1 vs. 3
differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic transcription - sub unitssigma vs. multi
differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic transcription - translationCo-transcriptional vs. spatially seperated
TWO MAIN MECHANISMS OF SPLICINGself splicing and via rna complex
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Section 6

Question Answer
Two major types of REblunt end and overcharge
Cloning a gene (in vitro)isolate DNA, insert vector plasmid, grow
Formation of a recombinant DNA molecule1. Cut DNA and RE (identical ends) 2. incubate 3. transform
Plasmidnonchromosome DNA bacteria
Phageviral DNA
cosmid/fosmidλ phage + plasmid
phagemidsm13 phage + plasmid
Basic assets of a functional plasmidPolylinker (digestion), Ori (medicate), Amp (selects)
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Section 7

Question Answer
Allosteric effectors bind to ?regulatory proteins
Positive controlinitiate the expression
The Operon System (mRNA)regulate units of gene expression
Inhibitors regulate?trans
Operator relguates?cis
Structural genes regulate?lactose (Z-, Y- or A-)
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Section 8

Question Answer
Promote-proximal elementspromoter of a eukaryotic gene
The Gal pathwayinduced 1000 times
chromatin remodelingremoves histones
open vs closed chromatinlow vs. high electrons and acetylation vs ethytylation
heterochromatin vs euchromatincondensed vs open and favorable vs non favorable
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