Biology Exam 4 Chapter 13 and 14

jspradz's version from 2015-04-17 13:10

Section 1

Question Answer
Humans have modified species through selection and breedingArtificial selection
The similarity in characteristics that result from common ancestryHomology
________ have different functions but are structuraly similar because of common ancestryHomologous structures
A ______ is a group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same timePopulation
The total collection of genes in a population at any one timeGene pool
The change in the relative frequencies of alleles in a gene pool over timeMicroevolution

Section 2

Question Answer
_______ states that: within a sexually reproducing diploid population, allele and genotype frequencies will remain in equilibrium, unless outside forces act to change those frequenciesHardy-Weinberg Principle
– homozygous dominant (p2)+heterozygous (2pq) +homozygous recessive (q2)= 100%Hardy-Weinberg Principle
3 main causes of evolutionary change: Natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow
The loss of genetic diversity when a population is greatly reducedBottleneck effect
When a few individuals colonize a new habitatFounder effect
The movement of individuals or gamates/spores between populationsGene flow
_______ selection favors intermediate phenotypes, acting against extreme phenotypesStabilizing
_______ selection acts against individuals at one of the phenotypic extremes.Directional
_______ selection favors individuals at both extremes of the phenotypic range.Disruptive

Section 3

Question Answer
The process by which one species splits into two or more speciesSpeciation
_____ defines a species as a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring. Therefore, members of a species are similar because they reproduce with each other.Biological species concept
_____ defines a species by its ecological role or niche Ecological species concept
_____ defines a species as the smallest group of individuals that shares a common ancestor Phylogenetic species concept
_______ classifies organisms based on observable physical traits Morphological species concept
Populations of the same species are geographically separated, isolating their gene poolsAllopatric speciation
occurs when a new species arises within the same geographic area as a parent speciesSympatric speciation
in which cells have more than two complete sets of chromosomes.Polyploidy
The evolution of many diverse species from a common ancestorAdaptive radiation
regions in which members of different species meet and mate to produce at least some hybrid offspring.Hybrid zones
model draws on the fossil record, where species change most as they arise from an ancestral species and then experience relatively little change for the rest of their existencePunctuated equilibria

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