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Biology - Chapter 7 Review

bezinawa's version from 2018-02-25 14:16


Question Answer
What is the structure that makes up every living thing?Cell.
What was Anton van Leeuwenhoek one of the first to see in the 1600s?Tiny living organisms in pond water.
What did a thin slice of cork seem like to Robert Hooke when he observed it through a microscope?To him, it seemed like thousands of tiny, empty chambers.
What did the German botanist Matthias Schleiden conclude?All plants are made up of cells.
What did the German biologist Theodor Schwann conclude?All animals are made up of cells.
How did Rudolph Virchow summarize his years of work?He proposed that all cells come from existing cells, completing the cell theory.
What are the three concepts that make up the cell theory?1.) All living things are composed of cells. 2.) Cells are teh basic units of structure and function in living things. 3.) New cells are produced from existing cells.
Why are electron microscopes capable of revealing details much smaller than those seen through light microscopes?The wavelengths of electrons are much shorter than those of light.
What's true about prokaryotes?They grow and reproduce.
Are all eukaryotes large, multicellular organisms?No, some of them live solitary lives as unicellular organisms.
ProkaryotesOrganisms whose cells lack nuclei, such as bacteria.
EukaryotesOrganisms whose cells contain nuclei, such as plants, animals, fungi, and protists
What is an organelle?Little organs in a cell.
What do animal cells contain?ER (endoplasmic reticulum) and mitochondria
What do plant cells contain?ER (endoplasmic reticulum), cell wall, and chloroplast.
What is the function of the nucleus?Controls most cell processes and contains the hereditary info of DNA
What important molecules does the nucleus contain?DNA proteins
The granular material visible within the nucleus is called?Chromatin
What does chromatin consist of?DNA bound to protein
What are chromosomes?Contain genetic info that is passed from one generation of cells to the next.
Most nuclei contain a small, dense region known as the?Nucleolus
What occurs in the nucleolus?Assembly of ribosomes begins.
What is the nuclear envelope?Allows material to move into and out of the nucleus.
What are ribosomes?Small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm.
What is the difference between rough ER and smooth ER?Rough ER is when ribosomes are found on the surface and smooth ER is when there are no ribosomes on the surface.
Using the cell as a factory analogy, describe the role of the Golgi apparatus in the cell.Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum.
What is true about lysosomes?They contain enzymes that help synthesize lipids, they break down organelles that have outlived their usefulness, and contain enzymes that break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins.
What are vacuoles?Store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
What is the role of the central vacuole in plants?It makes it possible for plants to support heavy structures such as leaves and flowers.
How does the contractile vacuole in a paramecium help maintain homeostasis?It pumps excess water out of the cell.
True or false? Both chloroplasts and mitochondria are enclosed by two membranes.True
Chloroplasts and mitochondria contain their own genetic information in the form of?Small DNA molecules.
What are mitochondria?Organelles that convert chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
Are mitochondria found in plant cells, animal cells, or both?Both
Where are chloroplasts found?In plants.
Biologist Lynn Margulis has suggested that mitochondria and chloroplasts are descendants of what kind of organisms?Independent microorganisms.
What is the cytoskeleton?Network of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape. It's also involved in movement.
MicrofilamentsThreadlike structures made of a protein called actin - it maintains cell shape, help build cilia and flagella, form centrioles in cell division.
MicrotubulesHollow structures made up of proteins known as tubulins - support the cell, help cells move.
What are the functions of the cell membrane?Regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protection and support.
The core of nearly all cell membranes is a double-layered sheet called a(n)?Lipid Bilayer
What is the difference in the function of the proteins, and the carbohydrates attached to a cell membrane?Proteins form channels and pumps that help to move material across the cell membrane. Carbohydrates allows individual cells to identify one another.
In what organisms are cell walls found?Many organisms such as plants, algae, fungi, and many prokaryotes.
True or false? The cell wall lies inside the cell membrane.False.
What is the main function of the cell wall?Provides support and protection for the cell.
What are plant cell walls mostly made of?Cellulose.
What is the concentration of a solution?Mass of solute in a given volume of solution OR mass/volume
What is diffusion?When particles tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area whee they are less concentrated.
What is meant when a system has reached equilibrium?When the concentration of the solute is the same throughout a system.
What does it mean that biological membranes are selectively permeable?It means other substances can pass across them and others cant.
What is osmosis?Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.


Question Answer
When will water stop moving across a membrane?When equilibrium has reached.
What does it mean when the solution is above strength in solute?A solution is hypertonic
What does it mean when the solutions are teh same strength?Two solutions are isotonic.
What does it mean when the solution is below strength in solute?A solution is hypotonic.
What happens during the process of facilitated diffusion?When cell membrane channels are helping diffusion of glucose across membrane.
What is the role of protein channels in the cell membrane?To allow glucose to pass through them.
True or false? Facilitated diffusion does not require the cell to use energy.True
The energy-requiring proces that moves material across a cell membrane against concentration difference is called?Active transport
True or false? Active transport always requires transport proteins during the process.False.
EndocytosisProcess of taking material into the cell by means of infoldings, or pockets, of the cell membrane.
PhagocytosisDuring this, extensions of cytoplasm surround a particle and package it within a food vacuole.
ExocytosisThe membrane of the vacuole surrounding the material fuses with the cell membrane, forcing the contents out of the cell.
During endocytosis, what happens to the pocket in the cell membrane when it breaks loose from the membrane?It breaks loose from the outer portion of the cell membrane and forma a vacuole within the cytoplasm.
A single celled organism is also called an?Unicellular organism.
What's true about cell specialization?Specialized cells perform particular functions within the organism, and the human body contains many different cell types.
What are four levels of organization in a multicellular organism?Individual cells, tissues, organs, then organ systems.
What is a tissue?Group of similar cells that perform a particular function.
What are the four main types of tissue in most animals?Muscle, epithelial, nervous, and connective tissue
Groups of tissues that work together to perform a specific function are called?Organ.
What kinds of tissues can be found within a muscle in your body?The nervous tissues and connective tissues.