Biology Chapter 1-5 PreTest

hipobake's version from 2016-09-23 03:37


Question Answer
The main source of energy for producers in a ecosystem islight energy
Two different domainsEukaryotic and Prokaryotic
Qualities of any good scientific hypothesisIt's Testable/ It's Falsifiable
4 major elements essential to lifeCarbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
Trace elementrequired by an organism in only minute quantities
Trace elementszinc, vandium, tin, silicon, selenium, molybdenum, manganese, iron, iodine, fluorine, copper, cobalt, chromium, and boron
Matterwhat organisms are composed of
Matteranythin that takes up space and mass
Protonssubatomic paritcles with a + charge
Atomic mass and/or Mass numbergives the number of protons and neutrons in the element
Atomic numbernumber of protons
Neutronsno electrical charge; neutral
Electronsnegative charge
Atomsmallest unit of mtter that still retains the properties of an element
IsotopesTwo atoms of an element that differ in number of neutrons
Radioactice isotopesdecay spontaneously, giving off particles and energy
covalent bondsharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms
ionic bondan attraction between an cation and an anion
acidsubstance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution 0-7
basea substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution 7-14
pHa solution is defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen (H+) ion concentration
buffersubstances that minimize changes in concentration of H+ and OH- in a solution
the element present in all organic moleculescarbon
The first peron to synthesize an organic compound urea from inorganic starting materialsFriedrich Wohler
Stanley Miller's experimentproved that organic molecules can be synthesized abiotically under conditions that may have existed on early Earth
Miller's experimentassumed that early Earth's atmosphere contained ammonia, methane, hydrogen gas, and water vapor
When Miller applied heat and electrical sparks to the simple inorganic compoundsproduced both simple organic compounds and more complex organic compounds such as amino acids and hydrocarbons
How many electron pairs does carbon share in order to complete its valence shell4
a carbon atom is most likely to form what kind of bond(s) with other atoms?covalent
structural isomershave different covalent arrangements of their atoms
Cis-trans isomerscarbons have thesame covalent bonds but differ in spatial arrangements
enantiomersisomers that mirror images of each other
isomerscompounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and different properties
functional groupsare the components of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions
Testosterone and estradiol arestructural isomers of each other
hydroxyl or carboxyl groupsmolecules with functional groups may form polymers via dehydration reaction
carbohydratesconsist of both small molecules and macromolecular polymers
polymera long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds, much as a train consists of a chain of cars
monomerssmall building-blocks molecules
life's organic molecules are polymerscarbohydrates, proteins nucleic acids, and lipids
dehydration reactionsa chemical reaction mechanism by which cells make polymers from monomers
hydrolysis and dehydration reactions relationshipdehydration reactions assemble polymers, and hydrolysis reactions break down polymers
a molecule with the chemical formula C6H12O6carbohydrate and monosaccharide
disaccharideformed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharaides
hydrolysisa reaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction
cellulosea major structural component of plant cell walls
Not soluble in waterlipids
Results of adding hydrogens to vegetable oil the hydrogenated vegetable oil stays solid at room temperature
The principal molecules in lard and buttersaturated fatty acids
Large organic molecules are usually by polymerization of a few kinds of simple subunitsa steroid
Three fatty acids are joined together to glycerol by an ester linkagetriglyceride/triacylglycerol
considered to be lipids because they are not soluble in waterhuman sex hormones
amino acidsorganic molecules with carboxyl and amino groups
what dehydration reactions use to form...triaclglycerides, polysaccharides, and proteins
secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures, but not primary structureprotein structure are stabilized or assisted by hydrogen bonds
bonds created during the formation of the primary structure of a proteinpeptide bonds
what maintains the secondary structure of a proteinhydrogen bonds between the amino group of one peptide bond and the carboxyl group of another peptide bond
the level of protein structure when the helix and pleated sheetsecondary
when the amino acids of the protein keratin are arranged predominantly in an helix makes the secondary structure stabilizehydrogen bonds
unique 3-D shape of the fully folded polypeptidethe tertiary structure of a protein
the level of protein structure are interactions between the side chains (R groups) most importanttertiary
starcha polymer of glucose monomers, as granules within cellular structures known as plastids, which include chloroplasts
a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugarnucleotides
nitrogenous bases of the pyrimidine typecytosine and uracil
nitrogenous bases of the purine typeguanine and adenine
the structural feature that allows DNA to replicatecomplementary pairing of the nitrogenous bases
the reaction of a fat, forming glycerol and fatty acids with the consumption of wateran example of hydrolysis
polymers made of monomers called nucleotidesnucleic acids
two type of nucleic acidsRNA & DNA
DNA sugardeoxyribose
DNA's nitrogenous basesC, G, A, T
DNA's shapeusually double-stranded
RNA's sugarribose
RNA's nitrogenous basesC, G, A, U
RNA's shapeusually single-stranded
DNA's functionsvarious functions during gene expression, including carrying instructions from DNA to ribosomes
RNA's functionsstores hereditary information
results when a protein consists of multiple polypeptide chainsquaternary structure
a protein is its unique sequence of amino acidsprimary structure
a biologically functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides, each folded and coiled into a specific 3-D structureprotein
enzymes, structural proteins, storage proteins, transport proteins, hormones, receptor proteins, motor proteins, defensive proteinsexamples of proteins
the one class of large biological molecules that do not form polymerslipids
triacylglycerol, fats, phospholipids, and steroidsexamples of lipids
phosphate group + 2 fatty acidsphospholipids
four fused rings with attached chemical groupssteroids
have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible and no double bondsSaturated fatty acids
have one or more double bondsUnsaturated fatty acids
a storage polysaccharide in animalsglycogen
Cellulose in human food passes through the digestive tract asinsoluble fiber
the polymers of sugars, have storage and structural rolespolysaccharides
cellulose, starch, glycogen, chitinexamples of polysaccharides
lactose, sucroseexample of disaccharides
glucose, fructoseexamples of monosaccharides