Biology 121 (chap. 35, 40)

anskorczewski12's version from 2015-04-21 16:36

Section 1

Question Answer
ability to change phenotypephenotypic plasticity
anchors vascular plasnts, absorbs minerals & water, stores carbs (taproots and lateral roots/ modified for storageroots
raises or separates leaves, exposing them to sunlight, raise reproductive structures, facilitating dispersal of pollen and fruit (some stems store food and do asexual reproduction= rhizomes, bulbs, stolons, and tubers) stem
the main photosynthetic organ for most plants (plants differ in arrangement of veins, monocots have parallel veins and eudicots have branched veins/ shape, and spatial arrangement also differ) (compound may help withstand strong wind and confine pathogens) leaves
roots, stem, leavesthree basic plant organs
the one main vertical root which develops from an embryonic root and gives rise to the lateral roots, generally penetrate deeply and well adapted to deep soilstaproots
-(branch roots) come off the taprootlateral roots
a point along the stem of a plant at which leaves are attachednodes
a segment of a plant stem between the points where leaves are attachedinternodes
a structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot or branch/ the bud appears in the angle formed between a leaf and a stemaxillary buds
a bud at the tip of a plant stem; also called a terminal bud (if an animal eats the end of the shoot or if shading results in the light being more intense to the side of the shoot, these start growing, which gives rise to a lateral shoot which has an apical bud, leaves, and axillary bud)apical buds
tendency for growth to be concentrated at the tip of a plant shoot, because the apical bud partially inhibits axillary bud growthapical dominance
the stalk of a leaf, which joins the leaf to a node of the stempetiole
the vascular tissue of leavesleaf veins

Section 2

Question Answer
do most of metabolic functions, synthesizing and storing of various organic productsparenchyma cells
support young parts of the plant shoot, flexible support without restraining growthcollenchyma cells
support, more rigidsclerenchyma cells
a short, irregular sclerenchyma cell in nutshells and seed coats. Sclereids are scattered throughout the parenchyma of some plantssclereids
a lignified cell type that reinforces the xylem of angiosperms and functions in mechanical support; a slender, tapered sclerenchyma cell that usually occurs in bundlesfibers
a long, tapered water-conducting cell found in the xylem of nearly all vascular plants. tracheids
a continuous water-conducting micropipe found in most angiosperms and a few nonflowering vascular plantsvessels
a living cell that conducts sugars and other organic nutrients in the phloem of angiosperms; also called a sieve-tube member. Connected end to end, they form sieve tubessieve-tube elements
an end wall in a sieve-tube element, which facilitates the flow of phloem sap in angiosperm sieve tubessieve plates
a type of plant cell that is connected to a sieve0tube element by many plasmodesmata and whose nucleus and ribosomes may serve one or more adjacent sieve-tube elements. companion cells
Plant tissue that remains embryonic as long as the plant lives, allowing for indeterminate growth. (divide when conditions permit, two types: apical and lateral) meristems

Section 3

Question Answer
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, anus (food processing) digestive
heart, blood vessels, blood (internal distribution of materials)circulatory
lungs, trachea (gas exchange)respiratory
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra (disposal of metabolic wastes; regulate osmotic balance of blood)excretory
pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, adrenal (coordination of body activities) endocrine
ovaries/testes (reproduction)reproductive
brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs (coordination of body activities; detect stimuli&form response)nervous

Section 4

Question Answer
different species independent adaptation to a similar environmental challengeevolutionary convergence
regulatoruses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in the face of external, environmental fluctuation
conformerallows its internal condition to vary with certain external changes
homeostasisa balance between external changes and the animal's internal control mechanisms that oppose the changes
negative feedbackbuildup of the end product shuts the system off (most homeostatic control systems function with this)
thermoregulationthe process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range
endothermicanimals generate heat by metabolism; bird and mammals
ectothermicanimals gain heat from external sources; most invertebrates, fish, amphibians, and non-avian reptiles
four physical processes to exchange heat; radiation, evaporation, convection, conduction
radiationemission of electromagnetic waves by all objects warmer than absolute zero, transfer heat not in direct contact
evaporationremoval of heat from liquid losing molecules as gas (not direct contact)
convectiontransfer of heat by movement of air/liquid past surfaces (direct contact)
conductiondirect transfer of thermal motion (heat)
countercurrent exchangethe transfer of heat between fluids that are flowing in opposite directions (in many birds and mammals to reduce heat loss)- arteries and veins are located adjacent to each other (warm blood transfers heat to colder blood returning in veins)
acclimatizationthe gradual process by which an animal adjusts to changes in its environment (ex- elk move into mountains, several days of changes help them facilitate activity at higher elevations) -*this is a temporary change during an animal’s life, not an adaptation by natural selection
poikilotherman animal whose body temperature varies with its environment
homeotherman animal whose body temperature varies with its environment
bioenergeticsthe flow of energy through an animal (limits behavior, growth, reproduction)
Basal metabolic ratethe metabolic rate of an endotherm at rest
standard metabolic ratemetabolic rate of an ectotherm at rest

Section 5

Question Answer
epithelial covers the outside of the body and lines organs and cavities within the body (columnar, cuboidal, squamous)
connectivefunctions mainly to bind and support other tissues, contains sparsely packed cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix of fibers (collagenous, elastic), mostly collagen (loose, fibrous, adipose, cartilage, bone, blood, fibroblasts, macrophages)
musclecomposed of long cells capable of contracting in response to nerve signals (skeletal, cardiac, smooth)
nervoussenses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal (neurons, soma, axon, dendrites, glial cells)

Section 6