Biology 101 Exam 2

gekezaxa's version from 2016-03-29 03:53


Question Answer
scanning electron microscope3-D image
transmission electron microscopegives more detail
cell fractionationthe technique that biologists use to separate cellular structures and organelles like mitochondria
Which of the following is common to prokaryotes and eukaryotes?plasma membrane, cytosol, DNA, and ribosomes
Which of the following is found both in plant and animal cells?Nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondrion, and chromatin
ribosomemake proteins
peroxisomeprocess H2O2
Golgi apparatusreceive, sort, ship materials
endoplasmic reticulumbiosynthesis
magnificationthe ration of an object's image size to its real size
resolutionthe measure of the clarity of the image, or the minimum distance of two distinguishable points
contrastvisible differences in brightness between parts of the sample
Why cells need to be smallincrease surface area to volume ratio
endomembrane systemincludes nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus and plasma membrane
Mitochondria and chloroplast commonalitiestwo membrane, thylakoids, ETP, interphase, proteins and lipids create growth
nucleic acids (DNA/RNA)the current model of the plasma membrane states that a membrane is a fluid structure with a "mosaic" of all kinds of bio molecules.
plasma membranetransport, enzymatic activity, signal transduction, cell recognition, intercellular joining, attachment to cytoskeleton and ECM
cholesterol embedded in membranesreduces membrane fluidity at moderate temperatures, but at low temperatures hinders solidification
glycoproteinthe molecule that is mostly involved in recognition and rejection of new tissue transplant
Na-K pumpactive transport in the cell
photosynthesisCO2 we exhale is produced during
cytoplasmfermentation, krebs cycle, glycolysis, ETC and oxidative phosphorylation
glycolysiswhen a toxic substance like cyanide blocks final transfer of electrons to O2
inhibitorscompetitive and noncompetitive
stomatathe oxygen molecules that chloroplast release to the atmosphere as a byproduct of photosynthesis come from
first law of thermodynamicsenergy is constant, energy can be transferred and transformed but not created or destroyed, energy conservation
second law of thermodynamicsevery energy transfer increases the entropy of the universe, cells convert energy to heat (lost energy)
how do enzymes catalyze biological reactions?by lowering activation energy
which of he following environmental factors can affect enzyme and enzymatic reactions?ph, temperature
What is photorespiration? What types of plant exhibit photorespiration?C3 plants consumes O2 and organic fuel releasing CO2; economic plants
hormoneslong instance signaling is always effected through
exergonic reactionproceeds with a net release of free energy, spontaneousq
endergonic reactionabsorbs free energy from its surroundings, not spontaneous
The 3 stages of cell respirationglycolysis, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation
Most of the ATP is produced duringoxidation of organic fuel molecules
Oxaloacetatefour carbon compound that receives Acetyl CoA for citric acid cycle
cellular respirationthe cellular function of oxygen in life
oxygen releasedoes NOT occur during the Calvin cycle
How is energy related to light wavelength?wavelength determines the type of electromagnetic energy
NADPH and ATPwhat are the energy products required by the Calvin Cycle produced during light reaction?
ligandin cell communication, a signaling molecule is called
in cell communication, lower organisms like yeast and bacteria are different from higher organisms in thatthey use chemical factors
kinasesany enzyme that catalyze the transfer of phosphate group
membrane receptorstyrosine-kinase, ligand, intracellular
what are the two common second messengers that often used by the cellcyclic AMP (cAMP) and calcium ions
transductionThe multistep pathways can amplify a signal and provide opportunities for coordination. phosphorylation and depphosphorylation
In multicellular eukaryotes, what are the key roles of cell division?development from a fertilized cell, growth and tissue repair
cytokinesisanimal:cleavage and cleavage furrow. plant: cell plate
cancer cellsdon't respond normally to the body's control mechanisms, may not need growth factors to grow and divide, can divide uncontrollably and eternally, immortal, appear different, escapees
G1 phaseamong the three sub phases of interphase, the cells undergo major growth in this phase
What cannot happen during bacteria and archaea (prokaryotic) cell division?bacteria doesn't have mitosis because it has no nucleus
cancer risksobesity, diet high in fate, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, tanning, exposure to viruses
Which plants are most adapted to the arid environments of the world like Arizona?CAM plants (cactus)