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BIOL1710 Exam 1 Vocab

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kyleegagne's version from 2016-09-15 19:03

Section

Question Answer
Organic chemistryStudy of components that contain carbon
VitalismMystical explanation for life force outside of the jurisdiction of physical and chemical laws
MechanismBelief that life forces adhere to physical and chemical laws
HydrocarbonsContain only carbon and hydrogens; components of fats; can release large amounts of energy
Functional groupsGive molecules their properties; ex: methyl, phosphate, carboxyl, etc.
EnantiomersIsomers that are mirror images of each other
IsomerCompounds with the same formula, but different properties and structures
Geometric isomersIsomers with the same covalent bonds but different spatial arrangements; divided into cis- and trans-
Structural isomersIsomers with a different covalent arangement of atoms
AcidAny substance that INCREASES the concentration of H+ in a solution
BaseAny substance that DECREASES the concentration of H+ in a solution
BufferMinimizes the changes in H+ or OH- concentrations in a solution
pHThe measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance
Ionic bondBond between a metal and a nonmetal; the TRANSFER of electron
Covalent bondBond between two nonmetals; the SHARING of electrons
Hydrogen bondsA weak bond between two molecules resulting from attraction between a proton (H) in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other
Van der Waals forcesWeak attraction between molecules resulting from random uneven distribution of electrons
AtomThe smallest unit of an element that still retains the properties of that element
ElementFundamental chemical substances that cannot be broken down
IonAn atom of an element with a different number of electrons
IsotopeAn atom of an element with a different number of neutrons
CationA positive ion
AnionA negative ion
SolventA substance that dissolves another substance
SoluteA substance that dissolves IN another substance
SolutionA homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
HydrophobicWater repellent
HydrophilicStrong affinity for water
MolarityNumber of moles per Liter of a solution (concentration)
CalorieHeat required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree Celsius
Specific heatHeat that must be gained OR lost to change the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree Celsius
Heat of vaporizationHeat that a liquid must absord in order to evaporate into a gas
Kinetic energy Energy of motion
TemperatureMeasure of the kinetic energy of particles within a substance
CohesionAttraction of molecules to other molecules of the SAME kind
AdhesionAttraction of molecules to other molecules of a DIFFERENT kind
Surface tensionThe measure of how difficult it is to break the surface of a liquid
Chemical reactionThe making or breaking of bonds
Polar moleculeA molecule with an uneven distrubution of electrons
Nonpolar moleculeA molecule with an even distrubution of electrons
Negative feedbackFeeback where the stimulus SUPPRESSES the response
Positive feedbackFeedback where the stimulus ENHANCES the response
Inductive reasoningComing to a general conclusion based on a specific observation
Deductive reasoningComing to a specific conclusion (or multiple) based on general observations
Qualitative dataData based on characteristics that can't be objectively measured; ex: behaviour
Qualitative dataNumerica, measurable data
BiologyThe study of life
HypothesisTentative answer to a posed question
Three Domains of lifeBacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
EvolutionChange over time
Natural selectionsWhen the environment weeds out organisms unfit to survive in it; the environment selects for the best adapted organisms
Emergent propertyA property which a system has, but the individual components do not have on their own
CellBasic unit of structure and function
DNAUnit of inheritance
Reductionism Reduction of complex systems/concepts to simpler and more manageable parts
GenomeThe entire set of an an organisms genetic instructions
ProtonPositive subatomic particle located in the nucleus of an atom
NeutronNeutral subatomic particle located in the nucleus of an atom
ElectronNegative subatomic particle located in a "cloud" around the nucleus of an atom
Atomic numberNumber of protons in an atom
Atomic weightNumber of protons and neutrons in an atom; measured in daltons or AMU
Potential energyEnergy that is stored to be released later
Molecule2 or more atoms held together by a covalent bond
Compound2 or more atoms of different elements bonded together; can be ionic, covalent, or metallic
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