Biol exam review

o1234567889q's version from 2017-12-14 17:05

chaps 40 & 42

Question Answer
per capita growth rate(change in N/change in t )/ N1
population prediction formulaNt=N1
ecologythe study of interactions between organisms and the environment
density equationsize/range
equation for what will a population look like in certain number of yearsNt=N1 * (1+r) ^t
when population increases under idealized conditionsexponential population growth
Kcarrying capacity ( # of individuals a habitat can support)
k strategyspecies produce few expensive offspring and live in stable environment
r strategyspecies produce many cheap offspring and live in unstable environments
Patterns of dispersion within a population's geographic rangeclumped, random, uniform
what flows through ecosystems whereas what cycles within themrespectively energy and matter
what is ecosystem dynamicsenergy flow and chemical cycling (ex. carbon cycling)

chap 32

Question Answer
thymusimmune and lymphatic system
thyroidendocrine system
categories of tissueepithelial, connective, nervous, muscle
long lived signal from endocrine signalinghormone

chap 34

Question Answer
Small molecules such as O2 and CO2 move between cells and their immediate surroundings bydiffusion
Open circulatory systems evolved incrustaceans, insects, mollusks and other invertebrates
what type of fluid is in open circulatory systemhemolymph
what type of fluid is in closed systemblood and interstitial
animals with closed systemAnnelids, cephalopods vertebrates
blood includesplasma 55% and cellular elements 45%
which stem cells in bone marrow make B and T cellslymphoid progenitor cells
examples of leukocytesB and T cells
which cells in the bone marrow make the blood cellsmyeloid progenitor cells
Networks of capillaries “capillary beds”the sites of chemical exchange between the blood and interstitial fluid
Blood the heart enters via _____and is pumped out via ____atria, ventricles
which hearts contain 2 or more chambersvertebrae
blood leaving the heart passes through two capillary beds before returning to heartsingle circulation
As the atrium contracts, blood flows from your right atrium into your right ventricle through theopen tricuspid valve.
As the atrium contracts, blood flows from your left atrium into your left ventricle through theopen mitral valve
As the ventricle contracts, blood leaves the heart through the: aortic valve, into the aorta and to the body
Question Answer
In humans the main breathing control centermedulla oblongata (near the base of the brain)
regulates the rate and depth of breathing in response topH changes in the cerebrospinal fluid
systolicheart contraction
diastolicrelaxing heart
pacemakersinoatrial node (SA)
The SA node produces electrical impulses(electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

chap 26

Question Answer
what is it called when two dna sequences have similaritieshomoplasy
who colonized the world before animals arrivedplants and fungi as partners
closest relatives of land plantsGreen algae called charophytes
polymer that prevents zygotes of the early algae ancestor from drying outsporopollenin
what is the differentiating feature of plantsthey are embryophytes; plants w/ embryos
Key traits that appear in nearly all land plants Alternation of generations, Multicellular, dependent embryos, Walled spores produced in sporangia, Apical meristems, Cuticle, Stomata
which cells can divide throughout plants' livesapical meristems
Cuticlea waxy covering that prevents water loss and microbial attack
Stomataspecialized pores that allow the exchange of CO2 and O2 between the outside air and the plant
The earliest land plants lackedtrue roots and leaves
fungi have a cell wall composed ofchitin
Photosynthetic micro-organism + Fungi=Lichen
Karyogamythe final step in the process of fusing together two haploid eukaryotic cells, and refers specifically to the fusion of the two nuclei
Plasmogamya stage in the sexual reproduction of fungi, in which the cytoplasm of two parent cells (usually from the mycelia) fuses together without the fusion of nuclei, effectively bringing two haploid nuclei close together in the same cell.
The five different Fungi Phyla differ bymode of reproduction
fungi phylumBasidiomycetes, Ascomycetes, Glomeromycetes, Zygomycetes, Chytrids
found on bread usually (bread mold). For asexual reproduction, a sporangium in formedzygomycetes
Club fungi, that includes the most deadly mushrooms and regular mushrooms, The members have small "clubs" on their gills that produce sporesbasidiomycetes
Flagellated fungi that were once classified as protists because of their flagellachytrids
These fungi form symbiotic relationships with plantsglomeromycetes
Sac fungi whose phylum name comes from the stem "ascus" meaning cup. The spores form on the inside. This phylum includes the morels as well as penicillinascomycota
While the chytrids are capable of zygotic meiosis, the blastocladiomycetes performsporic meiosis
xylem contain tube shape cells called _________ and are strengthened by__traicheds, lignin