BIOL 3500

dye13002's version from 2016-02-10 16:44

1. History of Microbiology

Question Answer
What is Microbiology?The study of microorganisms, including unicellular, multicellular, acellular.
4 areas of microbiology are?Virology, bacteriology, mycology, parasitology
Virology is what? Study of viruses
Bacteriology is what? Study of bacteria
Mycology is what? Study of fungi
Parasitology is what? Study of parasites/protists
Mycetoma and mucormycosis are examples of what?fungi
chagas disease is an example of what?Parasite
Who was Robert Hooke?English polymath, Micrographia for the Royal Society,* Cell from cork oak (Quercus suber), 1st drawings of microorganisms.
Who was Antony van Leeuwenhoek?Dutch microscopist and haberdasher, Father of Microbiology. Built many microscopes capable of magnifying 50-300x, Discovered protists and bacteria; banded pattern of muscle fibers; cochineal dyes; aspects of coffee
Spontaneous GenerationLiving things come from inanimate matter. Origins with Aristotle. “Vital Heat” and the five elements
Who was Francesco RediItalian physician, “Experiments of the Generation of Insects”. studied insects and jars of meat.
Who was Louis PasteurFiltered air through cotton and found spores, and growth occurred in sterile medium. Flask experiments 1. Boiled nutrient solns., cooled, no growth 2. Same but without curved necks, growth occur
Germ Theory was?Most people thought disease was caused by supernatural forces, poisonous miasma vapors, and an imbalance of the four bodily humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile (choler), and black bile (melancholy)
Evidence for Pathogenic Microorganisms1. Bassi silkworm disease – fungal infection 2. Berkeley potato famine of Ireland – water mold 3. De Bary smut and rust – fungal infection 4. Pasteur fermentation and pasteurization 5. Lister antiseptic surgery
Robert KochFirst evidence that microorganisms cause disease Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax (1876) 1. Injected mice with material from diseased animals 2. Extracts spleens from ill mice and incubates in beef serum 3. Bacteria grow, reproduce, and produce spores 4. Injects new mice with bacteria or spores, the disease presented
Robert KochProceeded to demonstrate that Mycobacterium tuberculosis caused TB Wins Nobel prize in 1905 Develops postulates about disease Used today as a standard for connecting many microorganisms (causative agents) with disease
Koch’s Postulates1. Organism must be found in afflicted hosts but not found in healthy individuals 2. Organism must be isolated from hosts and cultured 3. Cultured organism must cause disease when introduced into a healthy host 4. Organism must be re-isolated from the new host, and it must be the same as the organism that was initially isolated
Vaccines and important peoplePeople who survived sickness rarely get it again. Mary Wortley Montagu, and Edward Jenner
MontaguStationed in Turkey in 1717-1718 “Smallpox, so fatal and so general amongst [the English], is here [in Turkey] entirely harmless by the invention of ingrafting.” Smallpox outbreak in England in 1721 Tested inoculation on prisoners, who survived and were freed Tested other people (orphans, King’s grandchildren, another child) Servants of this other child contracted SP, and many people became fearful
Jenner13 years-old when Montagu dies English country doctor Investigated how milkmaids who had cowpox (vaccinia) never contracted smallpox. “As smooth as a milk maid's skin” Jenner extracts the contents of a pustule from the arm of cowpox-infected Sarah Nelmes, and injected it into the arm of 8 year-old James Phipps Mild symptoms in Phipps Next, injected Phipps with smallpox virus who later showed no symptoms (no pockmarked skin so incriminating of smallpox)
VaccinesJenner inoculates large numbers of people throughout England and Europe Variolation continues into America 1805 Napoleon orders all French soldiers to be vaccinated Term vaccine coined by Pasteur to honor Jenner
Who was the Father of Microbiology?Antony van Leeuwenhoek
Who were John Tyndall and Ferdinand Cohn?Last straw for SG. Dust does carry microorganisms. If dust is sterile, there is no growth
First evidence that microorganisms cause disease was discovered by who?Robert Koch
anthraxRobert Koch
TBRobert Koch
smallpox and cowpoxjenner
coined term “cell”hooke
1st to try to disprove spontaneous generationredi
last straw for spontaneous generation:Tyndall and Cohn
steps of Koch's postulates simplefound, isolated, disease, re isolated and same
term "vaccine" was coined byPasteur. honoring jenner
poliojohannes sulk. used jenner’s ideas to make vaccine
define antigenic shiftwhen a virus changes, diminishes utility of vaccines. why we need new flu shot each year.also why vaccines don't work all the time.

2. Microbe Types (pgs 10-25)

Question Answer
Woese’s 3 Domains of Lifebacteria archaea and eukarya
What microorganism has killed most people?smallpox
Initial source of genetic material was what, from what?RNA, from clay
Of Woese’s 3 Domains of Life, which 2 of bacteria archaea and eukarya are most closely related?archaea and eukarya are
When was the origin of life on Earth?about 3.5 BYA
Discovery of ribozymes byThomas Cech.
What did Thomas Cech discover?ribosomes, and that they do both cellular work and replicate itself
What does RNA doit can store, copy, and express genetic info and catalyze reactions
Next step in origin of life was toform membranes around RNA
what are membranes made of?Lipid (fat) membranes, Spontaneously form liposomes, Clay can trigger formation of replicating liposomes
structure of bilayerhydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail. hydrophilic core
Why RNA? (not DNA)Its function in the ribosome, which catalyzeprotein synthesis (rRNA, mRNA, tRNA)
What is RNA function?Its function to catalyze peptide bond formation of proteins
why is peptidogycan not retaining of color in G-?thinner peptidoglycan wall
What is ATP (adenosine triphosphate)?is a ribonucleotide. It can regulate gene expression
What did RNA give rise to?DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid)
What is DNA structure?Double stranded, more chemically stable
Early Metabolism examples wereChemoautotrophs
what are Chemoautotrophs?They make their own energy using inorganicmolecules (FeS)
Early Earth wasvery hot and anoxic
Photosynthesis developed when?~2.5 bya, fossils of cyanobacteria in stromatolite
Oxygen formation did what to earth?altered Earth’s atmosphere. Allowed for the evolution of other metabolism strategies (e.g. respiration)
Other Forces Leading to Diversity of Life wereEndosymbiosis (mitochondria and chloroplasts). These were Novel adaptations. Multicellularity Evolution of Eukaryotes. Sexual reproduction. Natural Selection - Mutation, speciation. Horizontal Gene Transfer
Origin of MulticellularityWorked with Choanoflagellates. Eukaryote. Closest relative to animals. Ancestral mutation in tail. 600 mya. No need Critical for forming colonies New protein function
are bacteria prokaryotes or Eukaryotes?prokaryotes
Are Archaea prokaryotes or Eukaryotes?prokaryotes
Are Eucarya prokaryotes or Eukaryotes?eukaryotes
Bacteria cell traites, cell walls yes or no, organelles yes or noUsually single-celled; have cell walls, with most species having peptidoglycan in the cell walls; no organelles; plasmids
Bacteria Gram Stain facts, who was it discovered by?Hans Gram. Differentiates G+ v G- bacteria (differential staining)
G+retain crystal violet, look purple
G-lose crystal violet, look pink / red
Bacteria - Plasmids factsExtrachromosomal DNA, ds DNA, Circular and linear, Few genes, but can contain virulence genes and antibiotic resistance genes, Readily transferred between individuals and populations
Bacteria - Endospores areDormant bacterial cell (not all bacteria can sporulate), Extremely resistant to things like heat, UV / gamma radiation,disinfectants, desiccation, Can last up to 100,000 years, Can be pathogenic – ex. Botulism, anthrax, tetanus
Archaea domainare prokaryotes
Archea factsUnique rRNA (parts of ribosomes) sequences differ from domain Bacteria; no peptidoglycan in cell wall (cannot use Gram stain test); contain unique cell membrane / cell wall lipids; usually extremophiles like Acidophile, alkaliphile, halophile,hyperthermophile, barophile, xerophile
can we do a gram stain test with archea?no.
Bacteria and Archaea Cell Types1 Bacillus (rod shape) eg Mycobacterium, Salmonella 2. Coccus (sphere shape) eg Streptococcus, Staphylococcus 3. Spirochete (spiral shape) eg Borrelia, Leptospira 4. Others: square, star shape
What shape are Bacillus rod
What shape are Coccussphere
What shape are Spirochetespiral
Eukaryotes domaineukarya
Eukarya factsHave membrane-bound organelles (nucleus,mitochondria/chloroplast, golgi, ER, vesicles),single- or multi-celled, massive morphological diversity,
Microbes for this Class1. Viruses 2. Bacteria3. Protozoans / Helminths 4. Fungi 5. Prions
Viruses factsAcellular (not in the three domains; alive?), RNA or DNA, ss or ds, Obligate intracellular parasite, Submicroscopic (need electron microscope)
virus ExsHIV, measles, rabies, yellow fever, dengue fever,ebola, marburg, influenza, mononucleosis, heptatis,smallpox, hantavirus
Bacteria factsUnicellular prokaryotes, - DNA, asexual reproduction via binary fission, Cell wall, Motile, Heterotrophic or autotrophic.
Bacteria ExsDiptheria, plague, Lyme, tuberculosis, strep throat, leprosy, gonorrhea, MRSA, tetanus, trachoma,cholera, shigellosis, septicemia, anthrax, brucellosis,
Protozoans / HelminthsUnicellular eukaryotes, - DNA, sexual or asexual reproduction. No cell wall, Motile, Heterotrophs, Huge taxonomic range
Protozoans / Helminths Exsmalaria, leishmaniasis, Chagas, African sleeping sickness, giardia, histoplasmosis, onchocerciasis,filariasis, schistosomiasis, toxoplasmosis
FungiUnicellular or multicellular eukaryotes, DNA, sexual or asexual reproduction. Cell wall present, Sessile, Heterotrophic
fungi ExsMycetoma, histoplasmosis, candidiasis,aspergillosis, sporotrichosis
PrionsAcellular infectious proteins. No genome (no DNA or RNA), Submicroscopic, Reproduction via contact with normal protein
Prions Exsscrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob, bovine spongiform encephalopathy
What have no peptidoglycan in cell wall?archea
What have unique RNA?archea
what domain are extremeophiles?archea

3. Classification (25-)

4. - 5. Epidemiology

6. Arthropods

7 - 8 Entomology

9. Hematophagy