The study of microorganisms, including unicellular, multicellular, acellular.
4 areas of microbiology are?
Virology, bacteriology, mycology, parasitology
Virology is what?
Study of viruses
Bacteriology is what?
Study of bacteria
Mycology is what?
Study of fungi
Parasitology is what?
Study of parasites/protists
Mycetoma and mucormycosis are examples of what?
chagas disease is an example of what?
Who was Robert Hooke?
English polymath, Micrographia for the Royal Society,* Cell from cork oak (Quercus suber), 1st drawings of microorganisms.
Who was Antony van Leeuwenhoek?
Dutch microscopist and haberdasher, Father of Microbiology. Built many microscopes capable of magnifying 50-300x, Discovered protists and bacteria; banded pattern of muscle fibers; cochineal dyes; aspects of coffee
Living things come from inanimate matter. Origins with Aristotle. “Vital Heat” and the five elements
Who was Francesco Redi
Italian physician, “Experiments of the Generation of Insects”. studied insects and jars of meat.
Who was Louis Pasteur
Filtered air through cotton and found spores, and growth occurred in sterile medium. Flask experiments 1. Boiled nutrient solns., cooled, no growth 2. Same but without curved necks, growth occur
Germ Theory was?
Most people thought disease was caused by supernatural forces, poisonous miasma vapors, and an imbalance of the four bodily humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile (choler), and black bile (melancholy)
Evidence for Pathogenic Microorganisms
1. Bassi silkworm disease – fungal infection 2. Berkeley potato famine of Ireland – water mold 3. De Bary smut and rust – fungal infection 4. Pasteur fermentation and pasteurization 5. Lister antiseptic surgery
First evidence that microorganisms cause disease Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax (1876) 1. Injected mice with material from diseased animals 2. Extracts spleens from ill mice and incubates in beef serum 3. Bacteria grow, reproduce, and produce spores 4. Injects new mice with bacteria or spores, the disease presented
Proceeded to demonstrate that Mycobacterium tuberculosis caused TB Wins Nobel prize in 1905 Develops postulates about disease Used today as a standard for connecting many microorganisms (causative agents) with disease
1. Organism must be found in afflicted hosts but not found in healthy individuals 2. Organism must be isolated from hosts and cultured 3. Cultured organism must cause disease when introduced into a healthy host 4. Organism must be re-isolated from the new host, and it must be the same as the organism that was initially isolated
Vaccines and important people
People who survived sickness rarely get it again. Mary Wortley Montagu, and Edward Jenner
Stationed in Turkey in 1717-1718 “Smallpox, so fatal and so general amongst [the English], is here [in Turkey] entirely harmless by the invention of ingrafting.” Smallpox outbreak in England in 1721 Tested inoculation on prisoners, who survived and were freed Tested other people (orphans, King’s grandchildren, another child) Servants of this other child contracted SP, and many people became fearful
13 years-old when Montagu dies English country doctor Investigated how milkmaids who had cowpox (vaccinia) never contracted smallpox. “As smooth as a milk maid's skin” Jenner extracts the contents of a pustule from the arm of cowpox-infected Sarah Nelmes, and injected it into the arm of 8 year-old James Phipps Mild symptoms in Phipps Next, injected Phipps with smallpox virus who later showed no symptoms (no pockmarked skin so incriminating of smallpox)
Jenner inoculates large numbers of people throughout England and Europe Variolation continues into America 1805 Napoleon orders all French soldiers to be vaccinated Term vaccine coined by Pasteur to honor Jenner
Who was the Father of Microbiology?
Antony van Leeuwenhoek
Who were John Tyndall and Ferdinand Cohn?
Last straw for SG. Dust does carry microorganisms. If dust is sterile, there is no growth
First evidence that microorganisms cause disease was discovered by who?
smallpox and cowpox
coined term “cell”
1st to try to disprove spontaneous generation
last straw for spontaneous generation:
Tyndall and Cohn
steps of Koch's postulates simple
found, isolated, disease, re isolated and same
term "vaccine" was coined by
Pasteur. honoring jenner
johannes sulk. used jenner’s ideas to make vaccine
define antigenic shift
when a virus changes, diminishes utility of vaccines. why we need new flu shot each year.also why vaccines don't work all the time.
Initial source of genetic material was what, from what?
RNA, from clay
Of Woese’s 3 Domains of Life, which 2 of bacteria archaea and eukarya are most closely related?
archaea and eukarya are
When was the origin of life on Earth?
about 3.5 BYA
Discovery of ribozymes by
What did Thomas Cech discover?
ribosomes, and that they do both cellular work and replicate itself
What does RNA do
it can store, copy, and express genetic info and catalyze reactions
Next step in origin of life was to
form membranes around RNA
what are membranes made of?
Lipid (fat) membranes, Spontaneously form liposomes, Clay can trigger formation of replicating liposomes
structure of bilayer
hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail. hydrophilic core
Why RNA? (not DNA)
Its function in the ribosome, which catalyzeprotein synthesis (rRNA, mRNA, tRNA)
What is RNA function?
Its function to catalyze peptide bond formation of proteins
why is peptidogycan not retaining of color in G-?
thinner peptidoglycan wall
What is ATP (adenosine triphosphate)?
is a ribonucleotide. It can regulate gene expression
What did RNA give rise to?
What is DNA structure?
Double stranded, more chemically stable
Early Metabolism examples were
what are Chemoautotrophs?
They make their own energy using inorganicmolecules (FeS)
Early Earth was
very hot and anoxic
Photosynthesis developed when?
~2.5 bya, fossils of cyanobacteria in stromatolite
Oxygen formation did what to earth?
altered Earth’s atmosphere. Allowed for the evolution of other metabolism strategies (e.g. respiration)
Other Forces Leading to Diversity of Life were
Endosymbiosis (mitochondria and chloroplasts). These were Novel adaptations. Multicellularity Evolution of Eukaryotes. Sexual reproduction. Natural Selection - Mutation, speciation. Horizontal Gene Transfer
Origin of Multicellularity
Worked with Choanoflagellates. Eukaryote. Closest relative to animals. Ancestral mutation in tail. 600 mya. No need Critical for forming colonies New protein function
are bacteria prokaryotes or Eukaryotes?
Are Archaea prokaryotes or Eukaryotes?
Are Eucarya prokaryotes or Eukaryotes?
Bacteria cell traites, cell walls yes or no, organelles yes or no
Usually single-celled; have cell walls, with most species having peptidoglycan in the cell walls; no organelles; plasmids
Bacteria Gram Stain facts, who was it discovered by?
Hans Gram. Differentiates G+ v G- bacteria (differential staining)
retain crystal violet, look purple
lose crystal violet, look pink / red
Bacteria - Plasmids facts
Extrachromosomal DNA, ds DNA, Circular and linear, Few genes, but can contain virulence genes and antibiotic resistance genes, Readily transferred between individuals and populations
Bacteria - Endospores are
Dormant bacterial cell (not all bacteria can sporulate), Extremely resistant to things like heat, UV / gamma radiation,disinfectants, desiccation, Can last up to 100,000 years, Can be pathogenic – ex. Botulism, anthrax, tetanus
Unique rRNA (parts of ribosomes) sequences differ from domain Bacteria; no peptidoglycan in cell wall (cannot use Gram stain test); contain unique cell membrane / cell wall lipids; usually extremophiles like Acidophile, alkaliphile, halophile,hyperthermophile, barophile, xerophile