BIOL 2140

kyleegagne's version from 2016-12-14 06:37


Question Answer
Obligate mutualistsRequire each other to persist
Facultative mutualistsprovide benefits to each other, but are not vital to each other's existence
generalistsone species interacts with many others
specialistsone species interacts with one or a few others
mycorrhizal fungilive on/in plant roots and help provide them with nutrients
ecotonessharp changes in environment over short distances
interdependent communitiesspecies depend on each other to persist (superorganism)
independent communitiesspecies don't necessarily need each other in order to survive
species richnessnumber of species in a given community
relative abundanceproportion of individuals in a community represented by each species
species evennesscomparison of relative abundance of each species in a community
keystone speciesa species that substantially affects the structure of its community
intermediate disturbance hypothesisthere are more species in a community with intermediate disturbances than there are in communities with frequent or rare disturbances
food chainlinear representation of how species in a community consume each other
food webmore complex and realistic representation of how organisms in a community consume each other
trophic levelslevels in the food chain/web of ecosystems
primary consumerseat the producers
secondary consumerseat the primary consumers
tertiary consumerseat the secondary consumers
omnivoreseat at more than one trophic level
guildsspecies that feed on similar foods
direct effecttwo species interact directly with each other
indirect effecttwo species interact but involve one or more intermediate species
trophic cascadeindirect effect initiated by a predator
bottom-up controlwhen the abundance is determined by the amount of energy available from producers
top-down controlwhen the abundance is determined by the presence of a predator
community stabilityability for communities to maintain their structure
community resistancehow much communities change when they are acted upon by a disturbance
community resiliencehow quickly a community goes back to a stable state after a disturbance
alternative stable stateoccurs when a disturbance alters a community so much that the composition changes
successionchange in species composition over time
seral stageeach stage of community change suring a period of succession
pioneer speciesfirst species to establish in a previously uninhabited area
climax communityfinal seral stage in succession
chronosequencesequence of communities that exist at a site over time
primary successiondevelopment of a community in a place initially devoid of plant life and organic soil
secondary successiondevelopment of a community that has been disturbed and contains organic soil but no plant life
facilitationpresence of one species increases the probability of another establishing itself
inhibitionestablishment of a species decreases the probability of another establishing
priority effectarrival of a species that affects the arrival of others
toleranceprobability of establishment of a species depends on its particular abilities needed to survive in that habitat
transient climax communityoccurs in a site where frequent disturbances mean no long-lived climax community
legacy effectlong-lasting influence of historical processes on contemporary ecology of a region
landscape ecologyspacial arrangement of habitats at different scales and examine how they influence different levels of ecological organization
local/alpha diversitynumber of species in a relatively small and homogeneous habitat
regional/gamma diversitynumber of species in all habitats in a region or large geographical area
beta diversitynumber of species that differ in occurrence between two different habitats
species sortingregional species pool is sorted among localities by adaptations and interactions
regional species poolcollection of species that occurs within a region
stepping stonessmall intervening patches of habitat that dispersing organisms use to move between favourable habitats
equilibrium theory of island biogeographynumber of species on islands are reflective of the balance between colonization of new species and extinction of old species
potential evapotranspirationamount of water evaporated from soil and transpired by plants givent he temperature and humidity
energy-diversity hypothesissites with more energy are able to support more species
continental driftmovement of the continents on the layer of magma in the mantle of the earth
instrumental value of biodiversityeconomic benefits of biodiversity
intrinsic value of biodiversityvalue of species in and of themselves
regulation servicesbenefits of biodiversity that include climate regulation, flood control, and water purification
cultural servicesbenefits based on aesthetic, spiritual, or cultural value of biodiversity
supporting servicesallow ecosystems to exist
mass extinction events>75% of existing species go extinct in a period of 2 million years
biotic homogenizationspecies originally found in different areas become more and more similar due to human movement
minimum viable populationsmallest population size that can persist in the face of environmental variation