saphire16's version from 2017-08-10 01:39

Keywords P

Question Answer
Parens PatriaeLatin for "parent of the nation." This refers to the state's power to intervene on the behalf of a child when their legal parent is negligent, abusive, or in other ways inadequate.
Pareto EfficiencyWhen one party benefits from a decision, but other parties are not made worse off by that decision.
Passive RegistryA sperm donor registry that makes identifying information available to the resulting child about his or her donor, but only if the child requests it at the requisite age.
Penalty DefaultA default rule that the more informed party would not want to be a part of the contract– meaning, there is an automatic penalty unless the parties contract around it. For example, if we make the default rule that sperm donors are the legal parents, that imposes a penalty on sperm donors that they would not want and forces them to contract around the penalty (i.e. have a contract that specifies that they are not the legal father).
Positional GoodsGoods that are desirable to have because others lack them. Being tall is an example of such a trait– indeed, tallness is defined by others' absence of height. Most goods are a mix of absolute and positional.
Positive SelectionThe use of preimplantation genetic testing to identify and use embryos for in-vitro fertilization that have a specific trait the parents deem desirable. For example, if A and B want a child with blue eyes, and test the embryos they plan to use for IVF for the gene for blue eyes, using only those embryos which carry that gene, that would be positive selection.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)A test used to screen embryos created for in-vitro fertilization for chromosomal abnormalities and other hereditary genetic disorders.

Keywords R and S

Question Answer
Reductio Ad AbsurdumA form of argumentation by which one attempts to establish that an argument is true by showing that alternative arguments lead to untenable, absurd results, or in turn to establish that an argument is false by showing that it produces untenable, absurd results.
RemedyThe means by which a court of law resolves a civil dispute, often through imposition of a penalty, or enforcement of a right. If A is successful in a civil suit against B, and the court requires B to pay A, and that payment is the remedy.
Rules and StandardsRules are more likely to give clear and definite answers and are easy to apply. For example, "Shopkeepers must destroy all blue dresses" is a rule, because it defines an unambiguous course of conduct. Standards, on the other hand, are more vague, leaving room for discretion in application. "Shopkeepers must destroy all dresses that are likely to offend someone" is a standard, because it leaves room for shopkeepers to decide what might offend someone.
Selective ReductionThe termination of excess pregnancies after IVF. Often done when parents only want one or two children, but three or four embryos successfully implant.
SpeciesismTo discriminate against an entity — to afford it fewer rights or a lesser degree of dignity — simply because that entity is not a member of the species Homo sapiens.
Stare DecisisAlso called "precedent," stare decisis is Latin for "to stand by a decision." Stare decisis is the doctrine that compels courts to follow prior decisions from other courts dealing with the same or similar question of law or fact. When we say a court is following precedent, we mean that another, different court has dealt with a similar question, compelling this court to follow the same reasoning.
Status Quo BiasStatus quo bias is a psychological phenomenon in which people overvalue or prefer the current state of affairs in relation to other possible states of affairs.
SurrogateA surrogate is a woman who carries a pregnancy for another woman.
Sword of DamoclesThe sword of Damocles is a cultural reference alluding to the tale of Damocles and King Dionysius — representing the immense danger felt by those with power.

Keywords T and U

Question Answer
TortA wrongful act or infringement of a legal right that leads to civil legal liability. Examples of torts include assault, trespass, and defamation.
Traditional SurrogacyA surrogacy arrangement in which the surrogate contributes an egg to the embryo. The surrogate is artificially inseminated by the intended father or a sperm donor, and is therefore the genetic mother of the resulting child. Traditional surrogacy may be accomplished with the aid of a medical professional, but does not require it.
TreatmentTreatments address disease or disability, that is, they return people to being well. Enhancements make people better than well. The distinction between the two can often be fuzzy- for example, a drug that makes an abnormally short child grow to a normal height could be classified as a treatment, as it helps him achieve the baseline human height, or as an enhancement, since it changes his own personal baseline.
Undue InducementProposing an offer that is “too good to refuse” — an offer that, in light of the other party’s situation, is so good that the other party’s sense of autonomy is undermined, because they feel substantial pressure to accept.
Unfair DistributionThe unequal distribution of resources across society — often involving the disproportionate allocation of resources towards the wealthy and away from lower socioeconomic groups.

Keywords W and X

Question Answer
Wrongful BirthA negligence-based tort claim brought against a doctor by the parents when a child is born with an illness about which the doctor could or should have warned the parents.
Wrongful LifeA negligence-based tort claim brought against a doctor by the child him or herself when a child is born with an illness about which the doctor could or should have warned the parents.
Wrongful PregnancyA negligence-based tort claim brought by parents when, due to the doctor’s alleged negligence, the parents have a child who is born healthy but who is one the parents sought to avoid having.
XenotransplantationThe practice of transplanting from a member of one species to a member of another.