Bioclinical soph spring

robbypowell's version from 2016-04-18 14:11


Question Answer
simplest anion of the element Fluorine...Fluoride (F-)
Fluorine is an ____ _____ metal (from periodic table)Alkaline earth metal
T/F: Fluorine is naturally occurringTrue
Dentist that worked with GV Black and discovered 1) Fluorosis occurs during development of teeth only & 2) that teeth with fluorosis are resistant to decayFrederick McKay
In what 3 ways "does fluoride work?"Promotes remineralization, Affects bacteria (lowers rate of acid production), Strengthens enamel
what is the level of Fluoride (F-) in optimally fluoridated drinking water?0.7 mg / L
concentrations of fluoride in toothpaste sold in the United States range from ____ - ____ ppm1,000-1,500 ppm
Fluorosis Concerns are greatest in children under age ___ since they have not developed swallowing reflexes entirely6 yo
formation of central incisors... the most sensitive period is estimated at age ____ months for boys and age ____ months for girls15–24months boys; 21– 30months girls
how do you distinguish between fluorosis and white-spot lesions?Fluorosis is symmetrical
fluorosis is caused because of a greater _____ composition in fluorosed enamelPROTEIN (more protein in teeth with fluorosis)
increased use of F- toothpaste, and fluoridated water used in baby formula are the main reasons for increased _____ in recent yearsFLUOROSIS
does swallowing toothpaste lead to fluorosis?yes, IF teeth are developing ! (and only then)
how much toothpaste should young children use when brushing? a ___ sized amountPEA sized amount
what has better support ... CDC grade 1 or CDC grade 3?Grade 1!
What has a more favorable code in CDC's treatment modality coding system... A or E?A! ("good evidence to support modality")
what population should never be given fluoride supplements?Pregnant women
Dietary supplements, fluoride gel, and fluoride varnish are only recommended to those with ...High caries risk (over age of 6 and not pregnant)
Evidence suggests that fluoride has a major role in the _________ cycleDemin/remin
The CDC grades evidence from properly conducted, randomly controlled trials as...Grade 1
The CDC strength of recommendation for community water fluoridation is ...A (good evidence for... strong recommendation)
according to CDC recommendations... Community water and fluoride toothpaste recommended for ______.EVERYONE (all subsets of population, high and low risk all ages and even pregnant women)
____ precipitates are formed on the surface of enamel and in plaque accumulation after topical fluoride has been introduced.CaF2
fluoridated enamel is more resistant to ____acid

CDC’s grading system (I, II, III) for determining the quality of scientific evidence (matching)

Question Answer
Grade IEvidence from properly conducted, randomly controlled trial
Grade II-1Evidence from trial without randomization
Grade II-2Evidence from well-designed cohort/case control
Grade II-3Evidence comparing time/places. Historic results.
Grade IIIOpinions of respected people/committees. Detailed case reports

CDC’s criteria and coding system (A, B, C, D, E) to evaluate the strength of the scientific evidence to support its recommendations (matching)

Question Answer
AGood evidence to support modality
BFair evidence to support modality
CNo evidence to support or refute modality (Or mixed evidence)
DFair evidence to refute modality
EGood evidence to refute modality

oral cancer

Question Answer
what is annual incidence rate of cancer in the US?1.7 million (new cases) (out of population of 300 million)
what is annual mortality from cancer?600k
With HPV 16 ... patients are ____ times more likely to develop o.p. Cancer14 x more likely
HPV 16 deregulates _____ leading to unregulated cell divisionpRB
contraction of what disease increases susceptibility to HPV 16?Herpes Simplex Virus
EGFR: overproduction leads to uncontrolled division of ___ cellsepidermal
Besides tobacco and alcohol, what other things cause men to have higher rate of cancer?1) more sun exposure 2) less likely to go to doctor
Saliva testing for IL-8 and IL-1b useful to test for ____ cell carcinomaStromal (connective tissue cells)
T/F: saliva is an easier, cheaper and quicker test for cancerTrue
2 most common sites for HPV carcinomaOropharynx & Base of tongue
4 deficiencies that can lead to greater incidence in oral cancerVitamin A, Vitamin D, Folate, Zinc & IRON
What is the most common site of distant metastasis of oral cancer?Lung (then bone, then liver)
HPV-16 causes carcinoma by expressing what oncogenes?E6 & E7
In HPV-associated carcinoma... ____ is expressed abundantlyP16
T/F: Oral cancer kills as many as melanoma and is more common than leukemiaTrue
Oral cancer is most common among men of what ethnic group?African american
T/F: overall cancer rates have declined since the early 1990'sTrue
T/F: overall cancer rates have increased since the early 1990'sFalse
90% of oral cancers are ____ ____ carcinomasSquamos Cell
two viruses likely to cause oropharyngeal cancerHPV 16 & 18
TF: the Betel nut & Areca tree are carcinogenic and cause cancer in indiaTrue
what type of genes regulate cell growth?Proto-onco-genes
what genes are responsible for apoptosis?P53
what are two important tumor suppressor genes?p53 & pRb
function of what gene to block cell division at G1/S checkpoint & induce apoptosisP53
define: areas of keratosis, white plaque that does not rub off, In mouthLeukoplakia
define: red lesion that can’t be classified as any other lesion, can have white spots (foci of keratosis)ERYTHROPLAKIA (greater chance of dysplasia or malignancy than leuko)
define: stage of abnormal tissue growth that is likely to develop into malignant tumorPrecancerous (dysplasia)
what area of oral cancer has the best prognosis?LIP (this is largely bc it is easily detected and early detection is best indicator of good prognosis)
Condition of chronic low iron level that predispose pt for cancerPlummer Vinson Syndrome


Question Answer
define: microbial derived community in polysaccharide matrixbiofilm
Biofilms mode of growth: ____ factors produced by gram - bacteria turn on regulonsSIGMA
Critical enamel demin pH is ____5.5
type of fibers that are localized, myelinated, large, sharp, rapid pain... responsible for dentin sensitivityA-delta fibers
type of fibers that are unmyelinated, small, dull, aching, prolonged pain; only activated in irreversible or nectrotic pulpitisC-fibers
which fibers are activated Pain from cold tests last more than 30 seconds and may have pain from heat as wellIntra-dental C-fibers

Infective Endocarditis

Question Answer
what microbe responsible for Intravenous Druguse Infective Endocarditis?Staph. Aureus