Biochemistry - Metabolism 1

filetuvu's version from 2016-12-06 05:21

Metabolism Sites

Question Answer
FA oxidation (beta-oxidation)mitochondria
Acetyl-CoA productionmitochondria
TCA cycle locationmitochondria
HMP shunt locationcytoplasm
F.A. Synthesiscytoplasm
Protein synthesisRER
Steroid synthesisSER
Location of heme synthesisboth cyto/mito
Location of gluconeogenesiscyto/mito
Location of urea cyclecyto/mito

Rate Determining Enzymes of Metabolic Processes

Question Answer
Phosphorylaseadds phosphate without using ATP
Dehydrogenaseoxidizes substrate
Rate limiting step glycolysisPFK-1 (F6P-->F16BP)
Rate-limiting step gluconeogenesisPEP Carbox
Rate-limiting step TCA cycleisocitrate dehydrogenase (isocitrate-->alpha ketoglut.)
Rate-limiting step for glycogen synthesisglycogen synthase (UDP-glucose-->storage from of glycogen)
Rate-limiting step for glycogenolysisglycogen phosphorylase (glycogen-->limit dextran)
Rate-limiting step in HMP shuntG6PD (glucose 6P --> 6 phosphogluconate)
Rate-limiting step in de novo pyrimidine synthesiscarbamoyl phosphate synthase 2, cyto only
Rate-limiting step in de novo purine synthesisglutamine PRPP amidotransferase
Rate-limiting step in urea cyclecarbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 (ATP+HCO3+ammonia-->carbamoyl phosphate), mito only
Rate-limiting step in FA synthesisacetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC-->malonyl coA), requires biotin
Rate-limiting step in FA oxidationcarnitine acyltransferase 1 (palmitoylcarnitine-->palmitoyl CoA)
Rate-limiting step in ketogenesisHMG-CoA synthase (acetyl CoA-->hmg CoA)
Rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesisHMG-CoA reductase (HMG CoA-->mevalonic acid)

B Vitamins

Question Answer
B1Thiamin (TPP) - Required for Pyruvate -> Acetyl CoA
B2(FAD/FMN) - Covalently binds enzymes
B3Niacin (NAD/NADP) - NAD for ATP and NADP for reducing power
B5Pantothenic acid (CoA) - picks up 2 pyruvate for transport to TCA
B6Pyroxidine (PLP) - decarboxylation of AA's
B7Biotin - Cofactor for 1st step of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, AA catabolism, transfer of CO2
B9Folic acid (DHF/THF) - Converts carbs to gluc
B12Cobalamine (methyl malonyl coa -> succinyl coa) catalysis formation of l-methyl malonyl coa -> succinyl coa