winniesmith's version from 2017-01-23 11:19

Section 1

Question Answer
what does insulin doantagonistic effect compared to adrenaline. keeps glycogen synthase in low activation form. switches off glycogen synthase kinase 3.
what does calcium doacts as a 2nd messenger (like cyclc AMP). negative control, activates calcium ions activates phosphorylase kinase. This activates glycogen phosphorylase and inhibits glycogen synthase.
how does adrenaline activate protein kinase Abinds to receptor, activates adenylate cyclase, this activates 2nd messenger and causes formation of cyclic AMP, which acts allosterically to activate protein kinase A
what does protein kinase doactivates phosphorylase kinase
what does phosphorylase kinase do converts glycogen phosphorylase from its less active B form (which can be activated without conformational change) to its more active A form.

Section 2

Question Answer
what is glycogenolysisprocess by which glycogen is broken down into glucose-1-phosphate (to be used in muscles)
what is the first step in glycogenolysis and what enzyme does it useGlycogen (n) +Pi ----(glycogen phosphorylase)----> Glycogen (n-1) + G1P.
what is the 1st step in oxidative phosphorylationA coenzyme strips 2 H atoms from a substrate molecule
what is the 2nd step in oxidative phosphorylationNADH and FADH2 deliver H atoms to coenzymes embedded in the inner membrane of a mitochondiron
hat is the 3rd step in oxidative phosphorylationCoenzyme Q releases H ions and passes electrons to cytochrome b.
hat is the 4th step in oxidative phosphorylationElectrons are passed along the electron transport system, losing energy in a series of small steps- b c a a3 (reducing steps)
hat is the 5th step in oxidative phosphorylationOxygen accepts the low energy electrons, and with H ions forms water.
what does the energy from NAD producepumps 6H+ out, therefore 3 ATP produced
what does the energy from FAD produce pumps out 4H+, therefore 2 ATP produced
how is the ATP produced in oxidative phosphorylationH+ are pumped against concentration gradient, flow through H+ channel of ATP synthase