winniesmith's version from 2017-01-23 11:09

Section 1

Question Answer
what is metabolismall chemical reactions in an organism.
what is cellular metabolism Includes all chemical reactions within cells
what does metabolism do?provides energy to maintain homeostasis and perform essential functions. homeo=constant, stasis= standing still
what is metabolic turnoverperiodic replacement of cells organic material
What is the nutrient poolcontains all organic building blocks cells need
what is the nutrient pool used forsource of substrates for anabolism and catabolism, to provide energy and to created new cellular components.
what is catabolismthe breakdown of organic substrates.
what is catabolism for?to release energy(ATP) used to synthesize high energy compounds. ATP used even at rest
what is anabolism?the synthesis of new organic material
what is anabolism used for?(uphill process) perform structural maintenance & repairs, support growth, produce secretions, store nutrient reserves.
what is the function of organic compoundssource of substrates for anabolism and catabolism.
what are the types of organic compoundsproteins, glycogen, triglycerides
what are proteinsmade of AAs. organic components in body. perform many vital cellular functions.
what is glycogenmade of glucose (storage of glucose). most abundant storage of carbohydrates. branched chain of glucose molecules.
what are triglyceridesstorage of lipids, primarily fatty acids. Glycerol + 3 fatty acids
what is energy ability to work
what happens to energy in the bodygoes through many cycles and transformations. ALWAYS with heat loss
how is energy measuredas heat (1st law of thermo)
what is nutritional energeticsstudy of sources and transformations of energy into new products
how is nutritional energetics measurednutritive value=calories or Kcals(kilo)
what percentage of dry matter we consume is used for synthesis of new products 70-90%
What is energetics study of energy requirements&flow of energy within a system.
what is the original source of energySun. photosynthesis captures energy-----> glucose
what energy do animals usechemical
how do animals use chemical energyoxidise bonds (energy levels of bonds vary)
what is bioenergetics study of the balance between energy intake (food) and energy utilization by animals for life sustaining processes.
give examples of 'life sustaining' processeslocomotion, reproduction, tissue synthesis, osmoregulation, digestion, respiration
what lives in hydrothermal vents chemosynthetic bacteria and archaea base of food chain
what are the essential materials and how do we get them oxygen (absorbed@lungs), water, nutrients (vit,mineral ions, organic substrates, @digestive tract)
types of biological processes/biologic workmechanical, chemical, transport.
where is ATP producedmitochondria (site of oxidative phosphorylation) where enzymes for fat metabolism, krebs, electron chain, ATP synthase located.
what does chronic electrical stimulation activate in mitochondriamitochondrial biogensis, increases density.
How is ATP broken downATP-----ATPase-------> ADP + Pi +Energy
what is an enzyme biological catalysts. decrease activation energy. increase speed/rate therefore life sustained.
what does a rate of am enzymes reaction depend onpH, temp, substrate availability.

Section 2

Question Answer
what are the elements of carbohydratesC,H,O/saccharides
Describe carbohydrateschemically simple-most abundant bio molecules. •Do not catalyse complex reactions • Do not replicate • No genetic blueprint • Heterogenous in size and compositio
what do carbohydrates do(innate structure)=function. Act as receptors for proteins(recognition and signalling). vairus size and composition.
what is the most basic carbohydrateMonosaccharides.
what is a polysaccharideMono+Mono=Poly(limitless ways)
how is a monosaccharide madesynthesized from smaller precursors--->precursors derived from CO2 & H20. contain atleast 3 Carbons
How do you classify a monosaccharide according to carbonyl group and number of carbons.
classification of carbons-names of nm of carbons 3-7Triose-3, Tetrose-4, Pentose-5, Hexose-6, Heptose-7
what does the L- and D- refer toomirror images of same structure. L-not bio active. D-active
what are epimerssugars that differ only by configuration of 1 carbon.
what is a carbonyl groupC=O
what are the 2 types of carbonyl groupAldehyde and ketone.
if the carbonyl group is an aldehype the sugar is a aldose
if the carbonyl group is a ketone the sugar is aketose.
what is an aldehyde carbonyl groupH-C=O at the end of the chain.
what is a ketone carbonyl groupC=H in middle of chain
examples of aldose sugarsglucose,manose, galactose, ribose, glyceraldehyde
examples of ketose sugarsfructose,ribulose, dihydroxyacetone
was is the 'ring' structure known ascyclic configuaration
when an alcohol reacts with a carbonyl group it formshemiacetals or hemiketals
how do hemiacetals/hemiketals formhydroxyl group and either the aldehyde/ketone function interact
How are cyclic configurations representedby Hawthorn projections
Characteristics of hawthorn projections3D. Thicker line=closer to observer. H atom on carbon is implicit(/C is numbered not written). C1- Anomeric carbon. Groups below plane= right hand side of F.
what is a 6C cyclic configuration known aspyranose
what is a 5C cyclic configuration known asfuranose

Section 3

Question Answer
what happens to the carbonyl/anomeric carbon when a monosaccharide cyclizesit become the chiral centre (chiral= carbon with 4 different groups attached).
what are anomers 2 isomers that differ at the anomeric carbon
what is D glucosean example of an anomer. freely interconvert in solution (64% Beta (more stable), 36% alpha)
what can assume the pyranose and furanose formany hexose or pentose. (hexoses and larger can (in principle) form rings 7+ BUT unstable and therefore not as common.
can cyclic and linear forms of A&K interconvert yes
what does the interconversion of cyclic and linear forms of A&K meanthat they can undergo reactions typical of aldehydes and ketones.
what does the oxidation of aldehydes do converts the aldehyde group to carboxylic group= aldonic acid
what does the oxidation of the primary alcohol group of aldehydes give uronic acid
in a monosaccharide what happens when the OH group is replaced with Hforms deoxy sugars (such as B-D-2-deoxyribose DNA).
in a monosaccharide what happens when the OH group is replaces with an amino groupforms amino sugars (such as D-glucosamine).
what is a glycosidic bondwhen a anomeric group of a sugar condenses with an alcohol. OH group in, H2O molecule lost and monosaccharides joined with O. (alpha or beta)
what are reducing sugarssugars with anomeric carbons that have not formed glycosides.
hydrolysis of glycosidic bondshydrolyse slowly, require hydrolytic enzymes (which speed up reactions)-----therefore-----> cannot freely convert.

Section 4

Question Answer
what are disaccharides 2 monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic bond.
what breaks glycosidic bondsinput H20 (hydrolysis)
what forms glycosidic bondsoutput H20 (lost condensation)
what does glucose and galactose makelactose (milk)
what does glucose and fructose makesucrose (plant sugar)
what does glucose and glucose makemaltose (reducing sugar)
what are polysaccharides more than 2 monosaccharides joined together. Can be linear or branched (in well defined manner)
example of a polysaccharideglycogen
what is glycogenpolysaccharide of glucose. Prevalent in skeletal muscles and liver. Highly branches and non reducing ends- for rapid breakdown/rapid mobilisation of glucose.
what is a glycoprotein class of proteins which have carbohydrate groups attached to the polypeptide chain.
what is the % CHO content of glycoproteinsvaried 1-90% by weight.
Examples of glycoproteinsenzymes, transport proteins, receptors (WBC,recognition,antibodies), structural proteins (in connective tissue, bind substances), hormones, mucins (secreted in mucus- sugars attached give water holding ability, protolysis resistant.
what are glycolipidslipids with a carbohydrate attached by a glycosidic bond
what is the role of glycolipidsto provide energy and markers for cell recognition
where are glycolipidsassociated with phospholipids on exoplasmic surface of cell membrane. carbohydrates found on all eukaryotic cell membranes.
why do we have glycolipids/ what do they act asrecognition site, maintain membrane stability, attach cells to one another --> tissues..
what are oligosaccharidescomponent of glycoproteins/lipids. chemical markers for cell recognition of ABO blood types.
how to oligosaccharides workA and B have different receptors, AB have both and O have neither.