Biochem2 lecture 7 pt2 Organs2

winniesmith1's version from 2017-03-21 20:48

Section 1

Question Answer
In skeletal muscle, what does an insulin increase do=more glucose transporters= increased Vmax. Controls both glucose metabolism and glycogen synthesis.
What does insulin do to levels of other enzymesDecreases glycogen phosphorylase. Increases glucose synthase (GS)
How is glycogen storage controlledMuscle glucose synthase can be phosphorylated by protein-kinase-A. This allows adrenaline (via cAMP and PKA) to switch off glycogen storage.
Describe fat metabolism in skeletal muscleParticularly oxidative fibres • Plasma non-esterified FA from stored Triacyglycerol in adipose tissue • FA carried as Triacyglycerol in Lipoprotein particles
What does FAT/CD36increases FA transport across membrane during exercise (integral membrane protein)
What does fasting doincreases FA metabolism in muscle.
What does Malonyl-CoA doregulates FA oxidation

Section 2

Question Answer
Describe FA metabolism in the heart Has lipoprotein lipase -plasma non-esterifies FA and plasma triglycerides. Lactate uptake and oxidation (TCA cycle)
What glucose transporter does the heart use and whenuse GLUT4 stimulated by insulin. Preference for glucose during 'fed' state. Reverse also true.
Describe the heart Striations- red fibres - oxidative capacity - contractile mechanism. FA-Glucose-Ketone bodies.
*Describe white and brown adipose tissueLow oxygen consumption. Regulation of plasma tricyglycerides. Intracellular lipase. Monoacylglycerol lipase.
In adipose tissue what does insulin doDeactivated intracelluar lipase. Promotes fat storage. Restrains fat mobilisation,
What is adipose tissuean endocrine organ
How does adipose tissue act as an endocrine organProduces steroid hormones (oestrogen and cortisol). Leptin (peptide hormone). Cytokines. ASP (acylation stimulating protein)

Section 3

Question Answer
Describe the kidneys150g each. Behind the perioneum. Bowmans capsule- glormeruli. 1/2 million nephrons.
What is the primary function of the kidneysUrine production- Disposal and regulation
Describe kidney metabolism• 10% of total oxygen consumption (0.5% mass) • Cortex large blood supply – oxidative • Medulla less blood supply – anaerobic
What does starvation in the kidneys causegluconeogenesis

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