BioChem2- Lecture 3. Hormones pt 2

winniesmith1's version from 2017-02-27 20:31

Section 1

Question Answer
What are the hormones of the adrenal medullaCatecholamines- epinephrine (adrenalin) and norepinephrine (nor adrenalin)
When are catecholamines produedStimulated by sympathetic nervous system to prepare you for immediate action
What do catecholamines do-Increase rate and force of heart contraction, blood pressure, and respiration. -Increase metabolic rate, glycogenolysis, and release of glucose and FFA into blood.-Force more blood to go to the skeletal muscles through vasodilation and vasoconstriction of specific vessels.
What are the hormones of the pancreasInsulin and glucagon
When is insulin secretedsecreted when plasma glucose levels are elevated (hyperglycemia) Beta cells
When is glucagon secretedsecreted when plasma glucose concentrations are below normal (hypoglycemia) alpha cells

Section 2

Question Answer
What are the hormones of the adrenal cortexMineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, gonadocorticoids
What do mineralocorticoids doMaintain electrolyte balance in extracellular fluids. -Include aldosterone
What do glucocorticoids doMaintain consistent plasma glucose levels between meals. - Include cortisol
What do gonadocorticoids doReleased in addition to those released by reproductive organs but in lesser amounts. - Include androgens, estrogens, and progesterones

Section 3

Question Answer
What are the reproductive hormonesAndrogens (i.e. testosterone), Estrogens, Progesterone
What do reproductive hormones do?cause primary and secondary sexual characteristics, can be used for hormone therapy or illegal drug use in sports.
Though not a major endocrine organ, what other hormone does the kidneys produce?erythropoietin
what does erythropoietin do?regulates RBC (erythrocyte) production by stimulating bone marrow cells. Important in our adaptation to training and to altitude due to 02 carrying capacity of RBCs.

Section 4

Question Answer
what hormones increase glucose metabolismGlucagon, adrenalin, noradrenalin and cortisol.
What happens when you need energy but carbohydrate reserves are low?the hormones accelerate the oxidation of fats to ensure your muscles get the energy they need. The rate of fat breakdown into FFA (free fatty acids) and glycerol may partly determine the rate at which muscles use fat as a fuel source during exercise.
which hormones increase fat metabolismCortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, growth hormone.

Section 5

Question Answer
Which hormones help promote glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis (increase plasma glucose levels)Glucagon, epinephrine, noreprinephrine and cortisol.
Which hormone facilitates glucose transport to the muscle fibersInsulin
What happens to glucose levels during exercise and what causes thisGlucose levels decline, indicating that exercise facilitates insulin action so that less is requires during exercise than at rest.
What happens when carbohydrate reserves are lowcortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine and growth hormone facilitate fat oxidation
What does cortisol do?Accelerates lipolysis, releasing FFAs into the blood so they can be taken up by cells and used for energy production.
What happens to cortisol during prolonged exercise?Cortisol levels peak and return to near normal levels during prolonged exercise. The catecholamines and GH then take over cortisol's role in releasing FFAs into the blood.

Section 6

Question Answer
What does aldosterone do?Released by the adrenal cortex in response to decreased blood pressure; it promotes sodium reabsorption in kidneys and to increase plasma volume.
What does antidiuretic hormone (ADH) do?Released by the posterior pituitary in response to increased blood osmolarity; promotes water conservation by increasing plasma volume.
what is angiotensina protein whose presence in the blood promotes aldosterone secretion and tends to raise blood pressure.
Following the initial drop, plasma vol. remains relatively constant throughout exercise due to what (3 things)1. The actions of aldosterone and ADH. 2. Water returning from the exercising muscles to the blood. 3. The increase in amount of water produced by metabolic oxidation within muscles.
what does fluid loss from the blood result inhaemoconcentration- conc. of particles of the blood
what is haemodilutiondilution of the constituents of the blood caused by gains in fluid to the blood.

Section 7

Question Answer
What is the 1st step in the renin-angiotensin mechanismMuscular activity promotes sweating and increases blood pressure
What is the 2nd step of renin-angiotensin mechanismSweating reduces plasma volume and blood flow to the kidneys.
What is the 3rd step of renin-angiotensin mechanismReduces renal blood flow stimulates renin release from the kidneys. Renin leads to the formation of angiotensin 1, which is converted to angiotensin 11.
What is the 4th step of R-A mechanismAngiotensin 11 stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex
What is the 5th step of R-A mechanismAldosterone increases Na+ and H20 reabsorption from the renal tubules
What is the 6th step of R-A mechanismPlasma volume increases; urine production decreases after several days of exercise and water and sodium intake.

Section 8

Question Answer
What are the two primary hormones involved in regulating fluid balanceAldosterone and ADH
What happens when the plasma volume or blood pressure decreaseThe kidneys produce renin that eventually converts to angiotensin ll
What does angiotensin ll do?increases peripheral arterial resistance, which increases blood pressure and triggers the release of aldosterone
What does aldosterone do?promotes sodium re-absorption in the kidneys, which in turn causes water retention, this increasing the plasma volume.
When is ADH released?in response to increased plasma osmolarity
What does ADH do?acts on kidneys to promote water conservation