laracrystalo's version from 2015-06-11 14:08


Question Answer
HDL hasApo A, C, E
LDL hasapo B 100
IDL hasapo E and B100
VLDL hasapo E, CII, B100
Chylomycron remnant has apo E and B-48
Chylomicron hasapo A, C, E, B-48


Question Answer
apo E does...mediates remnant uptake
apo A does...activates LCAT
apo C does...lipoprotein lipase cofactor
apo B48 does...mediates chylomicron secretion
apo B 100 does binds LDL receptor


Question Answer
hyperchylomicronemia has increased... chylomicrons, TG, choldesterol
familial hypercholesterolemia has increased...LDL and cholesterol
hypertriglyceridemia has increased... VLDL and TG
MI before age 20familial hypercholesterolemia (defective LDL receptor)
achilles tendon xanthomafamilial hypercholesterolemia (defective LDL receptor)
corneal arcusfamilial hypercholesterolemia (defective LDL receptor)
creamy layer in supernatanthyperchylomicronemia (I)
eruptive or pruritic xanthomashyperchylomicronemia
no risk for atherosclerosishyperchylomicronemia
can cause acute pancreatitishypertriglyceridemia
hepatic overproduction of VLDLhypertriglyceridemia
defective LDL receptorfamilial hypercholesterolemia
lipoprotein lipase deficiency or altered apolipoprotein CIIhyperchylomicronemia
autosomal dominanthypertriglyceridemia
autosomal recessivehyperchylomicronemia and hypercholesterolemia

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Question Answer
what delivers dietary TG to peripheral tissue?chylomicrons
what delivers hepatic TG to peripheral tissue?VLDL
what is formed in the degradation of VLDL?IDL
what delivers TGs and cholesterol to liver?IDL
what delivers hepatic cholesterol to peripheral tissues? LDL
what mediates reverse cholesterol transport form periphery to liver? HDL
what does moderate alcohol intake increase the synthesis of?HDL


Question Answer
what is best at lowering LDL?HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (STATINS)
side effects of statins?hepatotoxic (check LFTs), Rhabdomyolysis, teratogen
what is best at decreasing TG?Fibrates
how do fibrates work?stimulate lipoprotein lipase and decrease TG
side effect of fibrates?rhabdomyolysis, increase cholesterol in bile --> GALLSTONES
what do resins do?bind bile salts and eliminate them in feces thereby increasing liver cholesterol synthesis but decreasing serum LDL cholesterol
toxicity of resins?GI upset (nausea, constpation), bind fat soluble things and cause deficiency of ADEK, increases gallstones
wat does Niacin do?decrease TG and cholesterol by decreasing VLDL synthesis and increasing apo A --> increased HDL
toxicity of niacin?gout, flushing pruritus (increased prostaglandins)--can inhibit with NSAIDS
what does ezetimibe do?inhibits intestinal absorption of cholesterol thereby lowering LDL
vitamin Einhibits absorption of LDL by macrophages --> prevents MI
which drugs decrease LDLthey all do but statins the most, then ezetimibe and niacin
which drugs increase HDL?niacin the best, but also fibrates, statins, bile acid resins
which drugs decrease TGs?fibrates the best, but also statins, niacin (bile acid resins actually increase TGs a little)
activates PPAR alphafibrates to induce HDL synthesis

Glycogen storage associations

Question Answer
renomegalyvon gierke
defect glucose 6 phosphatasevon gierke
defect acid maltase (alpha 1, 4, glycosides)pompe
lysosomal and glycogen storage diseasepompe
increased glycogen in heart cellspompe
abnormal glycogen shapecori and anderson
decreased deb ranching enzymecori
decreased branching enzymeanderson
increased alpha limit dextranscori
cramps and myoglobinuria after exercisemcardle
decreased liver glycogen phosphorylaseHERS
mousy odorPKU
albinismPKU, chediak higashi
enzyme in PKUTHB or phenylalanine hydroxylase
enzyme in essential fructoseuriafructokinase so increase fructose in urine
enzyme in fructose intolerancealdolase B, so increase fructose 1 phosphate
enzyme buildup in galactokinase and galactosemiagalactitol
treatment for galactokinase and galactosemiano lactose or galactose
enzyme missing in galactosemiaGALT or galaxy 1 p uridyl transferase
lysosomal enzymes in blood and urineI cell disease
no mannose tagsI cell disease
vacuoles in phagocytesI cell disease
orange tonsilstangiers disease (no apo A)
abetalipoproteinemia defectmicrosomal transfer protein, so no chylomicrons, LDL, VLDL
retinitis pigmentosaabetalipoproteinemia
enterocytes congested with lipidsabetalipoproteinemia
cherry red spotpieman pick and tay sachs
no hepatosplenomegalytay sachs
hexominidase A defecttay sachs
glucocerebrosidase defectgaucher
what else is glucocerebrosidase called?beta glycosides, lysosomal hydrolase
defect sphingomyelinaseniemann pick
foamy macrophagesniemann pick
black urinealkaptonuria
defect in alkaptonuriahomogentistic acid oxydase
defect in homocystinuriacystathione synthase
tall, MI/stroke pronehomocystinuria
treatment for pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency?high fat diet
what causes fruity odor?acetone
sucrose breaks down toglucose and fructose
lactose breaks down toglucose and galactose
fatty acid breakdown enzymecarnitine
maple syrup urine disease enzyme defectalpha ketoacid dehydrogenase
glucose 6 phosphatase deficiencyVon Gierke
lysosomal alpha 1, 4 glucosidase deficiencypompe
aicd maltase deficiencypompe
debranching enzyme deficiencycori
glycogen phosphorylase deficiencyMcArdle