Biochem Test 4

yuwiwanu's version from 2016-10-25 03:27

Lipid Digestion Overview

Question Answer
Steps (path) of Lipid digestion in the small intestine1- lipids enter from stomach 2 - bile salts, cholesterol and lecithin act as emulsifiers 3- pancreatic lipases cut lipid into different parts
triglycerides in the small intestine are digested intofatty acids and monoglyceride
Panctreatic lipase requires assistance ofColipase
Protein B48 is associated withChylomicrons (used for structural integrity)
Emulsifying agents come from (organ)the Liver
Lipid digestive enzymes come from (organ)the Pancreas
After being broken down and absorbed into small intestine cells, fatty acids are reformed into ___ and packaged into ___reformed into TRIGLYCERIDES and packaged into CHYLOMICRONS
Chylomicrons leave the small intestine and are secreted into the _____LYMPH (then travel to the blood)
Chylomicrons from small intestine are sent off to what organ?Liver
G3P is not synthesized in the (organ)small intestine (mucosal cells, absorptive)
Primary cell for the storage of lipidsAdipose cells (stored as triglycerides)
Densest LipoproteinHDL
Least dense LipoproteinChylomicron
Adipose tissue lipid storagetake fatty acids and sugars and store as triglycerides
Adipose tissue lipid liquidationbreak down triglycerides --> bloodstream, carried via albumin

Fatty Acid Degradation (oxidation)

Question Answer
reaction sequence mnemonicOh, HOT! as in, we're degrading fatty acids... "oh, that's hot" because you're burning fat
OHOTOxidation by FAD, Hydration, Oxidation by Nad, Thiolysis
What are the outcomes of ONE ROUND of BETA OXIDATION?2 C's are cleaved off (by cleaving the Beta C, which is 3rd carbon) and 1 Acetyl CoA is produced (this goes to TCA cycle)
Where does Beta Oxidation occur?in the Mitochondria
What activation step must happen to fatty acids?Must attach a CoA (which makes them an Acyl CoA)
Where does activation step of Beta Oxidation happen in the cell?cytosol (adding a CoA onto fatty acid, making AcylCoA)
What enzymes work together to get Acyl-CoA into the Mitochondrial Matrix?CAT1 and CAT2 (Carnitine-Acyl Transferase1 and 2)
What does CAT1 do?swaps the Co-A of Acyl CoA's in the cytosol then hands off to cross mitochondrial membrane
What does CAT2 do?swaps the Carnitine on Carnitine-CoA entering the mito matrix with a CoA, restoring the lipid to an ACYL CoA (ready for Beta Oxidation)
What enzyme activates fatty acids for Beta Oxidation?Acyl CoA Synthase
Acyl CoA Synthaseactivates fatty acids for Beta Oxidation (in the cytosol)
How many ATP are used for activation of fatty acids for Beta Oxidation?2 ATP, one for AcylCoA Synthase, and another for pyrophosphatase (which removes reversibility of rxn)
How many ATP can be generated from an Acetyl CoA12
How many ATP can be generated from FADH21.64
How many ATP can be generated from NADH2.75
How many ATP are generated from an 18 C fatty Acid?-2 for activion +( 9 Acetyl CoA*(12 ATP/AcetylCoA)) + (8 FADH2 * (2 ATP/FADH2) + (8 NADH * (3 ATP/NADH))
Formula for ATP generation from fatty acidn*6 + ((n/2)-1)*5) - 2, so 18 C = (18*6) + ((9)-1)*5) -2 = 108 + 40 - 2 = 146
3 Causes of abnormal rise of ketone bodies in the bloodStarvation, Diabetes Mellitus, Atkin's Diet
3 forms of ketone bodiesacetoacetate, d-b-hydroxybutarate, acetone
What is the gatekeeper for Fatty Acid Oxidation?Malonyl CoA, the gatekeeper
Fatty Acid Oxidation happens under what condition?Fasting
Fatty Acid Oxidation happens primarily in what tissues?Muscle, Liver


Ketone Body Synthesis:
Question Answer
Excessive Acetyl-CoA in the mitochondria will be caused byexcessive B-Oxidation of Fatty Acids
Excessive Acetyl-CoA in the mitochondria require what for CoA to be liberated for TCA cycle?Ketogensis (production of ketone bodies)
Regulation point of KetogenesisHMG Co Synthase
What does Thiolase do?2 Acetyl CoA --> AcetoAcetyl CoA + CoA
Ketone bodies are mainly produced in what organ?Liver
Ketone bodies are mainly utilized where?Brain and Muscle
Ketone bodies are reconverted toAcetyl CoA

Hemostasis and Hemolysis

Question Answer
Secondary Hemostasis converts ____ --> _____Fibrinogen --> Fibrin
Primary Hemostasis form the ___platelet plug
Hemolysis, what even does this do?break down fibrin, remove clots
This deficiency does not allow for the formation of calcium bridgesVitamin K deficiency
icchymosislarge bruises and hemorrhages, resulting from problematic secondary hemostasis
hemotomabruise where blood leaks and forms blood blister under skin
Too few platelets would cause ________Thrombocytopenia
symptoms of Thrombocytopeniapetechiae in absence of trauma
idiopathic thrombocytopenic purport (ITP)blood vessel leakage from viral infection
symptoms of kawaski diseaseinflamed vessels involving skin, mouth, lymph node (that ratchet looking tongue picture... it looks BAD)
most common inherited platelet disorder of adhesion or aggregationVWF syndrome
Bernard-Soulierlack of gp1b
causes of Vitamin K Deficiencyliver disfunction or insufficient intake of Vitamin K
cost common cause of death from hemotomal disordersintracranial hemorrhage
Hemophilia A(80%of hemophiliacs) defect in factor 8
Hemophilia B(christmas disease) defect in factor 9
treat hemophilia how?
Hemolytic disordersDIC
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulationuncontrolled fibrin formation... (can cause death if hit brain?) bleeding or clotting can form inappropriately
if production of thrombin outweighs the production of plastinclot formation... (in this instance without causative trauma)
Thrombosistendency toward developing clots
Artherosclerosisinflammation b/c of plaques, can cause activation of hemostasis
Embolusbroken off clot formation can go to smaller vessel and cut off blood supply (embolism)
Deep Vein Thrombosisin the legs, veinous thrombi capable of producing embolism
Factor 5 Leidenautosomal dominant, can't degrade (something), causes DVT (Deep Vein Thrombosis)
Aspirin interacts with blood clot formation howblocks platelets ability to create TXA2 irreversibly, reduces activation/aggravation.. 7 days to restore normal levels
650mg Aspirin how much impact (pre-surgery)95% of (fill in)
Plavixinhibits ADP activation of platelets (not any better)
Heparinenhances antithrombin 2, doesn't cross placenta
Vit K antagonists, crosses placenta
tPA unboundpoor activator
tPA boundgood activator
the point of vasoconstriction is to _____lose less blood, by constricting amount of blood that comes through vessel before site of injury, less blood will be lost and less flow makes it easier for platelet plug to form


factors involved in what pathways etc

oxidative phosphorylation

Question Answer
Energy needed to phosphorylate ADP comes fromflow of electrons down electrochemical gradient
Membrane that is impermeable to ionsInner Mitochondrial Membrane
What is the charge of the inner membrane space?+ (high conc. protons... protons move along gradient to phosporylate ADP --> ATP)
All inner membrane complexes in mitochondrial membrane have what metal?Iron, Fe (heme and non-heme)
Which inner membrane complex has copper?Complex 4
Flavins, what do they do and what complexes are they in?initial electron acceptors for Complex 1 & 2
Flavins carry how many electrons?2
Cytochromesone electron carriers, contain porphyrin rings
Iron-sulfur complexesone electron carriers, non heme Iron
Iron-sulfur complexes found in which complexes?1, 2, and 3
Coenzyme 2 or Ubiquinonecarry electrons from Complex 1 and 2 to Complex 3
NADH Dehydrogenase (other name)Complex 1
Complex 1 (other name)NADH Dehydrogenase
FMNFlavin of NADH Dehydrogenase (Complex 1), accepts two electrons from NADH
What is name of Complex 1 and what does it do?NADH Dehydrogenase binds to NADH, transfers 2e's to Ubiquinone and pumps 4 protons into inner membrane space
What is name of Complex 2 and what does it do?Succinate Dehydrogenase, it passes electrons from succinate--> fumarate rxn and fadh2 to ubiquinone DOES NOT PUMP PROTONS
What is name of Complex 3 and what does it do?Cyt C Oxidoreductase, it transfers electrons from ubiquinone to cyctochrome C and pumps electrons
What is name of Complex 4 and what does it do?Cytochrome oxidase, takes electrons from cytochrome and transfers them to O2, forming H2O
Which membrane bound complex in the mitochondria is the greatest source of oxidative stress?Complex 4 (Cytochrome Oxidase)
Which complex contains copper?4, (cytochrome oxidase)


Question Answer
4 types of CELL RECEPTORS or signaling systemsIntracellular, Ion-Channel, G-Protein Coupled, Enzyme linked
What type of cellular receptors is most likely to affect gene transcription?Intracellular Receptor
What type of cellular receptor opens or closes in response to signaling molecule or membrane potential?Ion-channel
What type of cellular receptor is connected to an GTP activating component within the cell that activates a secondary messenger INTRAcellularlyG-Protein Coupled
What type of cellular receptor is connected to a catalytic site (within cells) and its activation produces enzymatic activityEnzyme linked
Signal Intregrationdecision-making based on the input of multiple signals for determining final action
examples of Peptide HormonesInsulin, Glucagon, Hypothalamic (AOGGCPS) and Pituitary hormones (FLAT PEG)
Peptide Hormone synthesis within the cellRibosomes make precursor proteins that are modified and packaged into secretory vesicles, Exocytosis release
examples of Cacetocholamine HormonesEpinephrine, norepinephrine (all water-soluble), synthesized in renal medulla and brain (neurotransmitter)
What amino acid are Cacetocholamine hormones made fromTyrosine
Function of cacetocholamine hormonesNeurotransmitter, Hormone... as hormone produces fight/flight responses
Eicosanoid hormones derived from arachidonic acid
3 types of EicosanoidsLeukotrienes, Thromboxanes, Prostoglandins
examples of "steroid hormones"sex hormones and those from adrenal cortex
steroid hormones are synthesized fromcholesterol
example Vitamin D hormoneCalcitriol
ADH deficiency causes _____Diabetes Insipidus
What hormones alter gene expression?(lipid-soluble) Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Steroid Hormones and Thyroxins
Glucocorticoids help regulate what?Carbohydrate metabolism
Mineralocorticoids help regulate what?blood electrolytes and fluid
Vitamin D helps regulate what?Calcium levels and bone resorption/building
Reticoids are derivatives of what ? Vitamin A or Beta Carotene
Calcitriol is a derivative of what?Vitamin D
Insulin is what type of hormone? (lipid soluble, cacetocholamine, peptide, steroid)peptide hormone
Glucagon is made in what organ strucure by what cells?Islets of Langerhans in the Pancreas, Alpha cells



hormones regulating metabolism

Question Answer
In skeletal muscles, alternative source of ATP energy when Oxygen is lowCreatine Kinase (or phoscreatine)
What hormones cause an increase in blood glucose levels of the body?Glucagon, Epinephrine, Cortisol
What hormone increases blood glucose levels through GLUCONEOGENESIS?Cortisol
The tissue responsible for heat generation (or thermeogenesis) in the body isSkeletal muscle
Metabolic target receptors of glucagon and epinephrine are what type of receptor?G-Protein Linked Receptors
Which hormone reacts immediately to the stress of the environment?Epinephrine
Which hormone reacts to stress over a prolonged period?Cortisol
What type of receptor does cortisol act on?Intracellular (actually bonds to DNA)
Type 1 diabetics are treated bygiving insulin, they cannot produce insulin
Type 2 diabetics are treated bySULFONYLUREA, (also exercise and diet) (they can produce, but cannot react to insulin at receptor sites)
Symptoms of acute uncontrolled DiabetesPPP (Polyurea, Polydypsia, Polyphagia) pee, drink, and eat a lot (don't get bigger though)
What clinical test can measure diabetic control (in/out) over a period of time?HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin)
What clinical tests test for diabetes by measuring immediate glucose level response?FPG (Fasting Plasma Glucose test) and OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test)
Exercise increases ___ which translocates (activates) ____AMP Kinase, Glut 4 receptors
Leptin acts on what receptors in the brain?JANK2
what is the function of adiponectin?increases the insulin sensitivity, anti-inflammatory