Biochem Test 2 Facts

lolernie's version from 2015-11-05 03:28


Question Answer
Fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin blocksgyrase
Vancomycin works bybinding to D-ala D-ala portion of cell wall precursors to block from cross-linking stopping peptidoglycan synth
Innermost part of LPSLipid A
Metronidazole works byblocks DNA replication by direct DNA damage
Strep pneumonia major virulence factoris it’s capsule / Strep is naturally competant and can take up capsule DNA from lysed strep
E-coli H7 ToxinShiga Like Toxin
Ciprofloxacin to E-coliDon't do it, induces lysis
Staph Aureus pathogenicity islands encodeSuperantigens including toxic shock syndrome
S. Aureus pathogenicity islands mobilized bySpecific phages, There is specificity for bacteriophage and bacteria
Generalized TransductionBacteriophage destroys bacteria DNA, accidentally builds capsule around one section
Specialized TransductionError in temperate virus - insert into host DNA then when excising, take up some host DNA near phage insertion site
Bacterial terminal e- acceptorDepends on bacteria
Nitrite in urine?NO2-NO3 may be terminal acceptor. Gram (-) organism, generally E. Coli
UTI bacteria that's oxidase +pseudomonas
Pseudomonas aerobic or anaerobicIt's a non-fermentor, Obligate aerobe
Distinguish between staph/strep?Both Gram + Cocci, staph is cat+ strep is cat(-)
Facultative anaerobeEnterics - Do better with O2 don't need it though
Microaerophile of stomachRequire only a little oxygen - Helicobacter Pylori
Obligate AnaerobesBacteroides/Clostridium
Indifferent AnaerobeStreptococci - Don't use O2 but not inhibited by it
Why Bacteroides Fragilis Mixed with E. ColiE coli uses oxygen so bacteroides can survive and fragilis is most tolerant
Distinguish between E. Coli and SalmonellaE. Coli is Lac(+) and Salmonella is lac (-)
What rotates flagellumProton motive force, some run atp synthase backwards
Streptococcal M proteins do whatAttachment
What is serum sensitivityComplement resistance
Gram type that's more serum sensitiveGram (-) b/c complement fixes on LPS
Azoles and Amphotericin B distrupt whatErgosterol (fungi wall = chitin + ergosterol + galactomannins)
Gardener's thumbSporotrichosis from Sporothirx Schenckii - Oral antifungal for 3-6months
Dermatophytosis AKA and causeRingworm - tinea - Many different YEASTS ring shape rash eat skin
Dermatophytosis recognition and cure- use local antifungal, KOH prep skin scrape to see hyphae
Systemic mycosesInhale spores of dimorphic fungi, which differential into yeast or spherules
Systemic Fungal DiseaseBlastomycosis (B. dermatiditis) - Central south USA, dead leaves, skin lesions
Histoplasmosis CapsulatumBird/bat droppings, lung lesion, ONLY INTRACELLULAR PATHOGEN
How get H. capsulatumInhale fungal spore,
H capsulatum survivalspore is engulfed by macrophages, develops in phagoylsosome of macrophage (Oval yeast in macrophage)
H. capsulatum cureIf mild/asymptomatic, let body clear it, amphotericin B for dissiminated disease
Candidiasis Albicans, Aspergillos fumigatis, Crytococcus neoformas, Pneuomocystic pneumonia are allopportunistic mycoses
Thrush, vaginitis, diaper rash, disease of local flora disturbedCandidiasis, part of normal flora normally
Diagnosed by germ tube and treaded with fluconazoleCandidiasis
Wide polysaccharide capsule, bird droppings, india ink, opportunistic for AIDS pplCryptococcus neoformans
Most common cause of fungal sinusitusAspergillosis fumigatus - fungal ball in lungs
Find and treat fungal lung ballsSeptate hyphae in biopsy, surgery then antifungals
Diarrhea + BloodEntamoeba Histolytica (protozoa parasite)
Smelly, watery diarrheaGiardia Lambia (protozoa parasite)
Green smelly vaginal dischargeTrichomas vaginalis (protozoa parasite)
Four protozoa parasite classesAmoeba, sporozoan, flagellate, ciliate
Protozoa life cycleTrophozoite (motile, feed, reproduce) then Cyst (thick wall, not metabolically active, survivor for transmission)
Anti-protozoal agent given (its an antibiotic too)Metronidozole
Entamoeba histolytica life-cycleEat cyst, trophozite in gut, epithelia cell invasion and hit liver, dystenery - troph/cyst pooped - repeat
E. histolytical cyst chlorine effectresistant!
Nematode bodyComplete digestive tract, covered in protetive cuticle, unsegmented, male is small
Elephantiasis/filiarasisWu Bancrofti nematode blocks lymphatics
How Wu bancrofti spreadMosquito microfiliarae in bloodmeal, migrate to mosquito nose to spread, adult in human lympatics
Trematodes and 1 exampleFlukes, Schistomosis
Trematode lifecycleSexual cycle in humans, asexual in snails.
Snails are an intermediate of whatALL trematodes that are medically important
How trematodes spreadfree swimming larval phase aka cercariea or eating cysts
Most common trematodeSchistosoma mansoni
Protozoa cell wallsNo rigid walls.
Plasmodium Life cycleMalaria goes from moquito nose to skin to liver, to blood, trophozoite, to picked up by mosquito, repeat.
Antihelminth targetsnervous system, energy and macromolecule synthesis machinery
Colonoziation vs InfectionInfxn is just colonization (residence in body) by disease causing microbe
Diseasesymptoms of pathogenic microbe
InfectivityHow good microbe is as infecting those it encounters
PathogenicityAbility of microbe to cause symptoms
VirulenceAbility of microbe to cause severe disease
Low ID50more infectious, cuz low number of microbes need to infect 50% of animals
Koch postulatesOrganism present in ppl w/ disease, isolate as pure culture, produces same disease in experimental host, isolate organism again
Are Koch posulates important??Yeah but not necessary, T. pallidum we can't culture, still know it gives you syphalis
Virulence factorsAbility to colonize, avoid host defenses, extract nutrients, cause enough damage to cause symptoms, etc.