Biochem - Block 1 - Carbohydrates

davidwurbel7's version from 2015-04-19 04:49


Question Answer
α 1-4 Gylcosidic bondMaltose
α 1-2 Gylcosidic bondSucrose
α 1-6 Glycosidic bondIsomaltose
β 1-4 Glycosidic bondLactose
Digestion of carbohydrates begins with Salivary α-amylase
Digestion of carbohydrates continues with Pancreatic α-amylase
Oligosaccharides are digested byα – glucosidase
Glucose transporter protein found in the blood-brain barrier, RBCs, blood-renal barrier, blood-placental barrier, blood-testis barrierGLUT 1
Glucose transporter protein found in the liver and β-cells of the pancreasGLUT 2
Glucose transporter protein found in the brainGLUT 3
Glucose transporter protein found in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, cardiac muscleGLUT 4
Actually a fructose transporter found in spermGLUT 5
1 glucose converted into 2 lactateAnaerobic glycolysis
1 glucose converted into 2 pyruvateAerobic glycolysis
The primary source of energy for tumor cells even though they do not have mitochondria isAerobic glycolysis
Glycolysis result is 2 ATP, 2 NADH and 2 pyruvateAerobic glycolysis
Glycolysis result is 2 ATP, 2 NAD+ and 2 lactateAnaerobic glycolysis
The rate limiting enzyme for glycolysis and is highly regulatedPhosphofructokinase-1
Fluoride inhibits this enzyme and hence decreases glycolysisEnolase
Production of Glucose-6-phosphate, Fructose 1,6 bisphosphate, and PyruvateIrreversible reactions
Deficiency of this enzyme leads to hemolytic anemiaPyruvate Kinase
Enzyme with low Km (0.05 mM) and low Vmax for glucoseHexokinase
Enzyme with high Km (5 mM) and high Vmax for glucoseGlucokinase
Inhibited by the reaction product glucose-6-phosphateHexokinase
Induced by insulin in hepatocytes, not inhibited by glucose-6-phosphateGlucokinase
ATP and citrate are negative allosteric modulatorsPhosphofructokinase-1
AMP and fructose 2,6-bis-phosphate are positive modulators ofPhosphofructokinase-1
Insulin stimulates and glucagon inhibitsPhosphofructokinase-1
Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs inCytoplasm
Oxidative-level phosphorylation occurs inMitochondria
Mutations of the pancreatic glucokinase geneMODY type II
Prevents net ATP and NADH production by glycolysis, without inhibiting the glycolysis pathway itself. Competes with inorganic phosphate (Pi) as a substrate for glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase forming a complex that spontaneously hydrolyze to form 3-phosphoglycerate.Arsenic

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