Biochem 2 2

lolernie's version from 2015-11-04 09:26


Question Answer
Why is tissue hypoxia a problemETC stops.
Mitochondrial transition poreCA influx from lowered ATP production (Ca/Na ATPase) opens MCTP cause cell death
Ischemic Reperfusion InjuryO2 increases suddenly, generation of ROS (CoQ goes both ways) further damagine ischemic tissue
MAOI in parkinsonsmore dopamine and LOWER H2O2
Iron in ParkinsonsIron levels higher, ferritin lower, oxidative damage -> mitochon probz
aa-trna synthetase can be a target forantibiotic/antifungal
Insulin phosphorylation of 4E-BP does whatPromotes general protein synthesis by releasing elF4E from inhibiting
Streptomycin mechanismBind 30s ribosomal subunit and doesn't let it bind 50s. - stops protein synth
Tetracycline mechanismBind 30s ribosomal subunit stops peptide additon stop protein synth
chloramphenicol mechanismBind 50s stops peptide bond formation
erythromycin mechanismBind 50s blocks translocation (diptheria toxin does same in eukaryotes)
Bonds broken per AA addition to polypeptide4, ATP->AT+PP->P+P then same to GTP
Rate limiting protein synthesis step (init/elong/term)initiation
What binds to stop codon in A sitereleasing factor which causes termination
Signal recognition particle does whatPauses translation, gets MRNA to right spot
aldolase Bhereditery fructose problem
Aldose reductaseglucose to sorbitol!!
Where is sorbitol dehydrogenase absentretina lens kidney nerves, get cataracts from aldolase reductase causing sorbitol buildup
Classic galactosemiaGALT absense ( Can't go Galactose 1-p to UDP galactose)
Non-classical galactosemiagalactokinase deficiency, galactosurea not a big deal.
Transketolase activity in lysed blood cell solution used for measuringthiamine deficiency
Xyulose-5-P from oxidative part of HMP shunt activates PP2A to dephosphorylate and activate ChREBP which increases transcription of whatPK1 and FA Synthesis genes
What effect does HMP shunt have on lipid synthesisIncreases via Xu-5-P chain through ChREBP increase of FA synth genes
Multiple carboxylase deficiency is usually caused by whatBiotinase deficiency which gets biotin from lysine
Multiple carboxylase deficiency has what problemPrevents recycling of biotin causing lots of problems
How much more does gluconeogenesis cost than glycolysis4 ATP more, gluconeo uses 6, glycol uses 2
Why alcohol pyruvate not available as substrate for glucose production (cause of hypoglycemia)all NAD+ used by alcohol
Thiazolidinediones treat hyperlipidemia in type 2 diabetes byactivating adipose tissue glyceroneogenesis thru increased expression of adipose tissue PEPCK
GlyceroneogenesisAdipose tissue can synth Glycerol-3-P for TAG synth without having glycerol Kinase
Glyceroneogenesis is an abbreviated form a gluconeogenesis for what purposeMake Glycerol-3-P
Main enzyme of glyceroneogenesis in adipose tissuePEPCK
Glucagon or insulin increases Protein Kinase A (PKA) in cell: Glucagon
Question Answer
Glycogen phosphorlase is active when phosphorylated byPhosphorylase Kinase
Glycogen Synthase is active when phosphorylated or dephosphorylatedDEphosphorylated.
glucagon->camp-> increased PKA effect on glycogenPKA activates glycogen phosphorylase at same time as deactivated glycogen synthase
Single energy cost for glycogen synthesisHydrolysis of Diphosphate
What does glycogen phosphorylase releaseGlucose-1-P for use by phosphoglucomutase
Type 1 hyperlipidemia causedeficiency of lipoprotein lipase
Type 2 hyperlipidemiaLDL-Receptor mutation. or ApoB mutation
Linoleic acid are essential whyCan't make cuz human desaturases can't make dbl bonds after C9, but they're precursor to prostaglandins
Malic enzyme rxn converts malate to pyruvate + _________ in cytosolNADPH!!
Tangier diseaseLow HDL, high amount of arteriosclerosis
AA's stimulate glucagon or insulinBoth
After 3 weeks of fasting skeletal muscle only uses what fuelFA's