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Bio114 15 To 18 Vocab

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Updated 2007-04-05 07:52

Summary

Vocabulary for Biology test.

Vocab Topics 15-18

TermDefinition
Glycolysisreaction carried out by all living cells (eukaryotic and prokaryotic); takes place in a series of 10 reactions, each catalyzed by a specific enzyme; linguistically, "to split something sweet"
Vesicle-Mediated TransportWhen eukaryotic cells take in macromolecules (like polypeptides, polysaccharides, and polynucleotides) that are too large to be transported by channel, carrier, or pump proteins. They rely on vesicle formation.
Hyphaa single filament of a fungi
Hyphae2 or 3 filaments of a fungi
Myceliuma large mass of filaments of a fungi
Chitinmajor component of fungus cell wall
Mycorrhizaea mutualistic relationship between roots of vascular plants, and fungi. The plant roots need help from fungi (high surface area) to absorb water and minerals (ex: phosphorous), and fungi gain sugar and amino acids from the plant. Linguistically means "fungus root"
Carbon Dioxidemakes up approximately 0.039% of the atmosphere; enters the plant through the stomata, then moves by diffusion into the leaf cells, then into the chloroplasts; it will be reduced to carbohydrates.
WaterH2O is taken into a plant primarily through the roots; during the oxidation of water, oxygen splits off from the hydrogen and is released into the atmosphere.
Transpirationloss of water/water vapor through stomata
Lightvisible (white) light is made up of many different colors (wavelengths). These range from violet to red, and each type of light is composed of particles of energy called photons.
Photonsparticles of energy that compose light
Porphyrin Ringthe magnesium atom surrounded by 4 nitrogen atoms (found in all types of chlorophyll)
Carotenoidsyellowish to orange-colored pigments that are not visible until autumn when chlorophyll production stops
Accessory Pigmentsterm for chlorophyll b and carotenoids; they absorb light energy of different wavelengths than does chlorophyll a, and then pass it on to chlorophyll a
Thylakoidsmembranes inside chloroplasts, which hold the photosynthetic pigments
Granuma stack of thylakoids (plural is "grana")
Antenna Pigmentspigments that absorb light and pass it on to the reaction center (a, b, and carotenoids are antenna pigments) -- not all antenna pigments are accessory pigments
Reaction Centerspecial pair of chlorophyll a molecules
photosystemterm for a grouping of pigments, containing 250-400 pigments; most are antenna pigments
Photosystem Ithe chlorophyll a of the reaction center is called P700 because it has an absorption peat at about 700 nm
Photosystem IIthe chlorophyll a of the reaction center is called P680 because it has an absorption peak at about 680 nm
Photorespirationin C3 plants, a process that occurs in hot, dry conditions due to an increase in the relative amount of oxygen; rubisco fixes oxygen, instead of CO2, which is in short supply, and photosynthesis is partially countered
Kranz anatomya leaf structure in C4 plants, where each vein is surrounded by thick-walled bundle-sheath cells, which are in turn surrounded by thin-walled mesophyll cells; this structure combats photorespiration
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