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Bio114 10 To 14 Vocab

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Updated 2007-04-05 07:52

Summary

Vocabulary for Biology test.

Vocab Topics 10-14

TermDefinition
RhizomesHorizontal underground stems (ex: grasses)
StolonsHorizontal above-ground stem (ex: strawberries)
PlantletsFormed at the margins of the leaves (ex: air plant)
GametophyteHaploid generation in plant sexual reproduction cycle
SporophyteDiploid generation in plant sexual reproduction cycle
Kalixcollective sepals
Corollacollective petals
ATPEnergy source common to all three domains of life
Phototrophorganism whose energy source is light
Autotrophorganism whose carbon source is inorganic carbon (CO2)
Photoautotrophuse light to make ATP; use ATP to reduce CO2; use reduced carbon as chemical energy to make more ATP
Carbon Dioxideis an oxidized carbon source; is reduced when energy is added; makes glucose when reduced
Glucoseis a reduced carbon source; can be oxidized to release its chemical energy; is the energy used to generate ATP
Chemotrophenergy source is chemicals taken from environment
Heterotrophcarbon source is organic, reduced carbon such as glucose taken in from the environment
Chemoheterotrophuse reduced carbon as chemical energy to make ATP
Diffusionthe movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration along a diffusion gradient
Facilitated Diffusionwhen molecules can not move through plasma membranes by simple diffusion because of size or polarity, and must be helped by transport proteins (channel or carrier) (ex: sugars, amino acids, nucleotides)
Active Transportwhen molecules cannot diffuse through membranes due to size or polarity, they require the help of pumps (very selective transport proteins) which can move molecules against a concentration gradient. Process requires energy
Osmosisthe movement of water through a differentially permeable membrane; movement occurs from high water potential to low water potential (water more concentrated ---> water less concentrated)
Hypotonic solutionshave less solute (higher water potential)
Isotonic solutionssolute concentration in cell is same as environment
Hypertonic solutionshave more solute (lower water potential)
Turgor pressurewhen water diffuses into terrestrial plant cells, causing the vacuole to press up against the cell wall causing internal pressure.
Turgida cell is "turgid" when undergoing turgor pressure
Plasmolysisoccurs when plant cell is placed in a hypertonic solution; the turgor pressure in the cells is reduced, plasma membrane pulls away from cell wall. Plant usually dies when exposed to these conditions.
Sodium-Potassium Pumpa type of pump that is active in all cells; transports sodium ions to the outside and potassium ions to the inside of cells; important in nerve and muscle cells; ATP energy required
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