Bio101 Final

michelleburkee2's version from 2015-12-10 06:03

Section 1

Question Answer
why do prokaryotes evolve at a faster rate than humans do?prokaryotes reproduce at a faster rate
aside from mutation, how can bacterial resistance be passed from one bacterium to another?conjugation
antibiotics are used to treat infections byprokaryotes
what are viruses made of?DNA (or RNA) and a protein coat
how many prokaryotes are in the human body?trillions
the domains in prokaryotesarchea and bacteria
three similarities between bacteria and archeano nucleus, single-celled organism, and small sized organism
what are the 2 biochemical and 3 structural differences between archea and bacteria? the ribosomes are different, the RNA polymerases are different, there are differences in cell walls, plasma membranes, and flagella
how do eukaryote flagella move?they bend
how do prokaryote flagella move?they rotate
are eukaryote flagella and prokaryote flagella different?yes.

Section 2

Question Answer
do bacteria and archea have a nucleus?no.
three shapes of prokryotescocci, bacilli, and spirilla
spherical prokaryotecocci
rod like prokaryotebacilli
corkscrew shaped prokaryotespirilla
flagellahair like extensions that can rotate rapidly to propel the organism through liquid
where can prokaryotes live?in a wide variety of environments
extremophilesorganisms that thrive in extreme environments
who are often extreophiles?archea
biofilmssome bacteria secrete sticky layers of polysacharide or protein slime. the communities of slime secreting bacteria are called biofilms.
what is dental plaque an example of?biofilm
what are biofilms used for?to protect bacteria embedded in it from disenfectants and antibiotics
what are endospores?thickly wrapped particles of genetic material and a few enzymes, They are highly protectant and resistant for bacteria
what do endospores allow?surivival in boiling water, stable and long lived, so this allows to transfer bioterror agents

Section 3

Question Answer
anaerobic metaolism of prokaryoteslive without oxygen (and are poisioned by it)
some bacteria can be both _____ and ______anerobic and aerobic (use oxygen)
anerobesprokaryotes that live without oxygen and are poisoned by it
where can prokaryotes extract energy from?organic compounds, compounds posionous to humans, inorganic compounds, and from sunlight
how do prokaryotes reproduce?binary fission or conjugation
binary fissionasexual cell division, genetically identical daughter cells, binary fission is simpler than miotic cell division, can occur every 20 minutes
if prokaryotes reproduce asexually, how come they adapt so well to such diverse environments?they are simple and reproduce quickly, mutations can be passed on and if these mutations are beneficial they will accumulate. Fast reproduction allows for rapid evolution
baterial sexconjugation
what is conjugation?it allows for DNA transfer between donor and recipient. it provides new genetic combinations.
how does conjugation work?sex pilus form a cytoplasmic bridge across 2 bacteria allowing DNA, such as plasmids, to be transferred
how do prokaryotes help in animal nutrition?symbiotic relationships between bacteria in stomach and the organism. it helps the organism break down the food.
microbiomethe many microbes that live in our bodies form an ecosystem thats critical for health
nitrogen fixationplants require nitrogen to grow but cannot capture it from the air. plants depend on nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Nitrogen fixers live in specializd root modules.
how are prokaryotes natures recyclers?prokaryotes obtain energy by breaking down complex organic molecules. Decomposition of dead organisms frees nutrients for reuse by new life. this is the basis for continued life on earth.
what can prokaryotes clean up?most pollution
pathogenicdisease producing bacteria
how could a oil spill be cleaned up?by prokaryotes
are there pathogenic archea?there have been none discovered to date
do viruses make energy from organic moleucles?no

Section 4

Question Answer
bubonic plague and lyme disease are caused bypathogens
how can common bacteria species be harmful?they can be turned into pathogens by inheriting traits from another bacteria
antibiotics killmicroorganisms
antibacterialsmost antibiotics are these. they specifically kill bacteria
antibiotics target three specific things in bacteriacell walls, ribosomes, and the bacterial enzymes that help with DNA replication and RNA transcription
bacteria enzymes are ______ eukaryote enzymesdiffernt than
why do some diseases dissapear then reapear?antibiotic resistance
four characteristics that describe virusesvey small and typically smaller than bacteria, dependent on hst cell to reproduce (not really a "living" organsm), does not have a cytoplasm or ribosomes, and do not use or make energy from organic molecules
what do viruses not have?cytoplasm and ribosomes
what to things make up viruses?DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat
what do viruses sometimes have?a viral membrane and gylcoproteins on their membrane that help them infect their target
what do viruses require for reproduction?a host
viruses invade ______the host cell with its viral genetic material which takes command . The hijacked cell then expresses viral genes to produce new virus cells.
are viruses host specific?yes
can a virus attack any cell?no. They are host specific. they are specialized to attack a specific host.
bacteriophagesviruses that attack bactera
retroviruseshave RNA as a genome
how does the retrovirus work?once inside the host cell, they use a retrovirus transciptase enzyme to convert genomic RNA to viral DNA. the viral DNA inserts into host DNA. the host then transcribes the viral DNA to viral RNA and then transfers to viral proteins
are antibiotics useful against viruses?no. they are useful against bacteria. antiviral drugs are used against viruses.
why are antiviral drugs not always effective?viruses hide within cells and are hard to detect, they mutate quickly and they mutation can cause a resistance to the antiviral drugs
viroids areplant pathogens made up of RNA only (no protein coat), very short
how do viroids work?they enter a host cell nucleus, insert host genome and get copied by the hostgenome
viroids can causecrop diseases
can viroids be found in animals?*no*
prionsinfectous proteins that attack the mammalian nerous system