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Bio07 Chap 13

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cpiotrowski's version from 2016-11-18 03:51

Section 1

Question Answer
chromosomestructure made up of DNA and histones
sex chromosomeassociated with individual sex
autosomenon-sex chromosome
unreplicated chromosomeconsists of one double-helical molecule of DNA packaged with proteins
replicated chromosometwo identical chromatids; both have double-helical DNA molecule
sister chromatidstwo identical chromatids copies in a replicated chromosome
homologsdiploid organism, chromosomes that are similar in shape, size, and gene content
non-sister chromatidschromatids belonging to homologous chromosomes
tetradhomologous replicated chromosomes that are joined together during prophaseI and metaphase I of meiosis
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
haploid numbernumber of differ. types of chromosomes in a cell; n
diploid numbernumber of chromosomes present in a diploid cell; 2n
haploidone of each type of chromosome
diploidtwo of each type of chromosome
polyploidhaving more than two of each chromosome
memorize

Section 3

Question Answer
early prophase Isynapsis,tetrad formed;
late prophase Inon-sister chromatids begin to separate' cross over between homologous non-sister chromatids
metaphase Itetrads line up at the metaphase plate
anaphase Ipaired homologs separate; begin to migrate toward ends of cell
telophase Ihomologs make it to the poles of the cell
cytokinesiscell divides
haploiddaughter cells of meiosis I are
memorize

section 4

Question Answer
prophase IIspindle apparatus forms; one attaches to centromere of sister chromatid
metaphase IIreplicated chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate
anaphase IIsister chromatids separate; daughter chromosomes begin to move to opposite sides of the cell
telophase IIchromosomes arrive at opposite sides of cell; neclear envelope forms around haploid sets
memorize

section 5

Question Answer
synapsishomolog pairs come together in a pairing process
tetradfour homologs(four chromatids); forms from synapsis
genetic recombinationproduce random assortment of chromosomes
nondisjunctionif both homologs/sister chromatids move to the same side of the parent cell
aneuploid zygotestoo few chromosomes
trisomytwo gametes have an extra copy of a chromosomes
monosomytwo gametes lack chromosome
Down syndrometype of trisomy
nondisjunction in meiosis 1trisomy or monosomy
memorize
Purifying selection hypothesis asexual: damanged gene will be inherited by all of that individual's offspring

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