kisferkate's version from 2017-09-25 23:50

Section 1

Question Answer
carbohydratesFuel for cellular functions, Structure of cells
energy in carbs come fromC-H bonds store energy and are easily broken
Monosaccharides (ONE sugar molecule)Multiples of formula CH2O, Glucose, Fructose
Three fates of glucosefuel for cellular energy, stored as glycogen, converted to fat
Dissacharides (TWO sugar molecules)Sucrose, lactose
Polysaccharides (more than two, Time release stores of energy)Starch: chains of glucose

Section 2

Question Answer
LipidsFats, sterols, phospholipids (non-polar)
lipids (fats)long-term energy storage and insulation
Sterolsregulate growth and development
PhospholipidsForm cellular membranes
Saturated Fatslots of hydrogen atoms, solid room temp, (animal fats)
unsaturated fatsfewer than max hydrogens, often liquid at room temp (plant oils)
Sterols (cholesterol and hormones)four fused carbon rings as skeleton
CholesterolComponent of cell membranes, sex development

Section 3

Question Answer
Proteinschief building blocks of life, Polymer made of two or more amino acids
All proteins containNitrogen
Denaturationdisruption of protein folding, Due to extreme environments (temperature, pH, physical disruption
EnzymesInitiate and accelerate chemical reactions, Unchanged by the reactions, Used multiple times

Section 4

Question Answer
Nucleic acidsstore information, dna/rna
Nucleotide =sugar + phosphate+ base
A binds withT
C binds withG

Section 5

Question Answer
All living things are composed of cells.All cells come from pre-existing cells
Passive transport does not require energy, CO2 and O2, can also be transport material
Active transportrequires energy
Bulk transportuses vesicles
Direct, without assistance or with assistant eCO2 and O2
Osmosismovement of water molecules from high to low concentrations (a special case of diffusion)
Endocytosis (vesicles)moving molecules INTO the cell
Exocytosis (vesicles)moving molecules OUT OF the cell

Section 6

Question Answer
Cells can communicate viasignal molecules and connections between cells
structure not in plant cellcentriole
structure not in animal cellcell wall, chloroplast, vacuole
Cytoplasmthe entire region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
Ribosomes Use the DNA to make proteins
CytoskeletonPhysical shape and support, Generates movement, Controls intracellular flow
Flagella and ciliaShort projections used for movement/ Sperm, respiratory tract
Mitochondria“Powerhouse of the cell”–All purpose energy converter
Lysosomes(garbage disposals), Digest food and breakdown damaged organelles
Endomembrane Systemmanufacturing and distributing cellular products, disarms toxins
Three main components of Endomembrane systemRough ER, Smooth ER, Golgi Apparatus
Rough ERFold and package protein to be shipped to elsewhere in the organism.
Smooth ERSynthesizes lipids, detox w/ enzymes (LIVER!)
Golgi apparatusRefines, stores, and distributes chemical products , Packaging and tagging (“protein trafficking”)

Section 7

Section 8

Section 9

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