Bio Vocab

mattf's version from 2016-01-25 05:43

Section 1

Question Answer
assortative matingmating of individuals with similar phenotypes
bottleneck effecttype of genetic drift; occurs when a majority of genotypes are prevented from participating in the production of the next generation as a result of a natural disaster or human interference
cost-benefit analysisa weighing-out of the costs and benefits of a particular strategy or behavior
directional selectionoutcome of natural selection in which an extreme phenotype is favored, usually in a changing environment
disruptive selectionoutcome of natural selection in which the two extreme phenotypes are favored over the average phenotype, leading to more than one distinct form
dominance hierarchyorganization of animals in a group that determines the order in which the animals have access to resources
fitnessability of an organism to reproduce and pass its genes to the next fertile generation; measured against the ability of other organisms to reproduce in the same environment
founder effectcause of genetic drift due to colonization by a limited number of individuals who, by chance, have different genotype and allele frequencies than the parent population
gene flowsharing of genes between two populations through interbreeding
gene pooltotal of all the genes of all the individuals in a population

Section 2

Question Answer
genetic driftmechanism of evolution due to random changes in the allelic frequencies of a population; more likely to occur in small populations or when only a few individuals of a large population reproduce
Hardy-Weinberg principlelaw stating that the gene frequencies in a population remain stable if evolution does not occur due to nonrandom mating, selection, migration, and genetic dirft
heterozygote advantagesituation in which individuals heterozygous for a trait have a selective advantage over those who are homozygous dominant or recessive
industrial melanismincreased frequency of darkly pigmented forms in a population when soot and pollution make lightly pigmented forms easier for predators to see against a pigmented background
microevolutionchange in gene frequencies between populations of a species over time
mutationalternation in chromosome structure or number and also an alteration in a gene due to a change in DNA composition
nonrandom matingmating among individuals on the basis of their phenotypic similarities or differences, rather than mating on a random basis
populationgroup of organisms of the same species occupying a certain are or volume living in a particular habitat
population geneticsthe study of gene frequencies and their changes within a population

Section 3

Question Answer
sexual selectionchanges in male and female, often due to male competition and female selectivity, leading to increased fitness
single nucleotide polymorphismsite present in at least 1% of the population at which individuals differ by a single nucleotide. These can be used as genetic markers to map unknown genes or traits
stabilizing selectionoutcome of natural selection in which extreme phenotypes are eliminated and the average phenotype is conserved
territorialitymarking and/or defending a particular area against invasion by another species member; area often used for the purpose of feeding, mating, and caring for young
territoryarea occupied and defended exclusively by an animal or group of animals