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Bio unit 6.5

charlotteamannt's version from 2018-12-17 20:48

Section 1

Question Answer
Neurons specialised cells that function to transmit electrical impulses within nervous system
Nervous system purposeconverts sensory information into electrical impulses in order to rapidly detect and respond to stimuli
Axon elongated fibre that transmits electrical signals to terminal regions for communication with other neurons or effectors
Dentrites Short-branched fibres that convert chemical information from other neurons or receptor cells into electrical signals
Soma cell body containing the nucleus and organelles, where essential metabolic processes occur to maintain cell survival
Myelin sheath improves the conduction speed of electrical impulses along the axon, but require additional space and energy
Resting potential difference in charge across the membrane when a neuron is not firing. In a typical resting potential, the inside of the neuron is more negative relative to the outside
Action potential rapid changes in charge across the membrane that occur when a neuron is firing
Myelinmixture of protein and phospholipids that is produced by glial cells
Oscilloscopes scientific instruments that are used to measure the membrane potential across a neuronal membrane
Neurotransmitterschemical messengers released from neurons and function to transmit signals across the synaptic cleft

Section 2

Question Answer
Ventilation exchange of air between the atmosphere and the lungs – achieved by the physical act of breathin
gas exchange exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and bloodstream (via passive diffusion)
Cell respiration release of energy (ATP) from organic molecules – it is enhanced by the presence of oxygen (aerobic)