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Bio test 4 ch 13

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emmajohnson's version from 2015-04-19 20:43

Section 1

Question Answer
heredityThe transmission of traits from one generation to the next.
variationDifferences between members of the same species.
GeneticsThe scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation.
geneA discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
gameteA haploid reproductive cell, such as an egg or sperm. ________ unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
somatic cellAny cell in a multi-cellular organism except a sperm or egg or their precursors.
locusA specific place along the length of a chromosome where a given gene is located.
asexual reproductionThe generation of offspring from a single parent that occurs without the fusion of gametes (by budding, division of a single cell, or division of the entire organism into two or more parts). In most cases, the offspring are genetically identical to the parent.
clone(1) A lineage of genetically identical individuals or cells. (2) In popular usage, an individual that is genetically identical to another individual. (3) As a verb, to make one or more genetic replicas of an individual or cell.
sexual reproductionA type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from both parents via the gametes.
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Section 2

Question Answer
life cycleThe generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism.
karyotypeA display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
homologous chromosomesHaving two identical alleles for a given gene.
sex chromosomesA chromosome responsible for determining the sex of an individual.
autosomeA chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex; not a sex chromosome.
diploid cellA cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
haploid cellA cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
fertilization(1) The union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote. (2) The addition of mineral nutrients to the soil.
zygoteThe diploid cell produced by the union of haploid gametes during fertilization; a fertilized egg.
meiosisA modified type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms consisting of two rounds of cell division but only one round of DNA replication. It results in cells with half the number of chromosome sets as the original cell.
alternation of generationsA life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants and some algae.
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Section 3

Question Answer
meiosis IThe first division of a two-stage process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the number of chromosome sets as the original cell.
meiosis IIThe second division of a two-stage process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the number of chromosome sets as the original cell.
DNA replication (Mitosis)Occurs during interphase before mitosis begins
Number of divisions (Mitosis)One, including prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
Synapsis of homologous chromosomes (Mitosis)Does not occur
Number of daughter cells and genetic composition (Mitosis)Two, each diploid (2n) and genetically identical to the parent cell
Role in the animal body (Mitosis)Enables multicellular adult to arise from zygote; produces cells for growth, repair, and, in some species, asexual reproduction
DNA replication (Meiosis)Occurs during interphase before meiosis I begins
Number of divisions (Meiosis)Two divisions, each including prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
Synapsis of homologous chromosomes (Meiosis)Occurs during prophase I along with crossing over between nonsister chromatids; resulting chiasmata hold pairs together due to sister chromatid cohesion
Number of daughter cells and genetic composition (Meiosis)Four, each haploid (n), containing half as many chromosomes as the parent cell; genetically different from the parent cell and from each other
Role in the animal body (Meiosis) Produces gametes; reduces number of chromosomes by half and introduces genetic variability among the gametes
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Section 4

Question Answer
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