The transmission of traits from one generation to the next.
Differences between members of the same species.
The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation.
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
A haploid reproductive cell, such as an egg or sperm. ________ unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
Any cell in a multi-cellular organism except a sperm or egg or their precursors.
A specific place along the length of a chromosome where a given gene is located.
The generation of offspring from a single parent that occurs without the fusion of gametes (by budding, division of a single cell, or division of the entire organism into two or more parts). In most cases, the offspring are genetically identical to the parent.
(1) A lineage of genetically identical individuals or cells. (2) In popular usage, an individual that is genetically identical to another individual. (3) As a verb, to make one or more genetic replicas of an individual or cell.
A type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from both parents via the gametes.
The generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism.
A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
Having two identical alleles for a given gene.
A chromosome responsible for determining the sex of an individual.
A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex; not a sex chromosome.
A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
(1) The union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote. (2) The addition of mineral nutrients to the soil.
The diploid cell produced by the union of haploid gametes during fertilization; a fertilized egg.
A modified type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms consisting of two rounds of cell division but only one round of DNA replication. It results in cells with half the number of chromosome sets as the original cell.
alternation of generations
A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants and some algae.