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Bio Terms Chapter 16 ;)

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clairebear2018's version from 2018-04-12 03:28

Section 1

Question Answer
DNA is copied during _______ and cells can repair their DNADNA Replication
Transformationa change in genotype and phenotype due to assimilation of foreign DNA
More evidence for DNA as the genetic material came from studies of viruses that infect bacteriabacteriophages (or phages)
A ______ is DNA (sometimes RNA) enclosed by a protective coat, often simply proteinvirus
DNA model made up of two strandsdouble helix
Antiparallelsubunits run in opposite directions
Semiconservitive Modelpredicts that when a double helix replicates, each daughter molecule will have one old strand (derived or “conserved” from the parent molecule) and one newly made strand
Origin of Replicationwhere the two DNA strands are separated, opening up a replication “bubble”
Replication Forka Y-shaped region where new DNA strands are elongating
Helicasesenzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks
Single Strand Binding Proteinsbind to and stabilize single-stranded DNA
The initial nucleotide strand is a short RNA primer
This is synthesized by the enzyme primase
DNA Polymerases catalyze the synthesis of new DNA at a replication fork
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Section 2

Question Answer
Along one template strand of DNA, the DNA polymerase synthesizes a ________ continuously, moving toward the replication forkleading strand
To elongate the other new strand, called the _______, DNA polymerase must work in the direction away from the replication forklagging strand
The lagging strand is synthesized as a series of segments called _______, which are joined together by _______Okazaki fragments ; DNA ligase
In _______ of DNA, repair enzymes correct errors in base pairingmismatch repair
In ________, a ______ cuts out and replaces damaged stretches of DNAnucleotide excision repair ; nuclease
Eukaryotic chromosomal DNA molecules have special nucleotide sequences at their ends calledtelomeres
In the eukaryotic cell, DNA is precisely combined with proteins in a complex called chromatin
Proteins called ______ are responsible for the first level of packing in chromatinhistones
Unfolded chromatin resembles beads on a string, with each “bead” being a ______, the basic unit of DNA packagingnucleosome
Loosely packed chromatin is called euchromatin
During interphase a few regions of chromatin (centromeres and telomeres) are highly condensed intoheterochromatin
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