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Bio Review Part 2

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auroradye's version from 2016-05-06 05:25

Review part 2

Question Answer
60. Ring Vaccination was used to eradicate smallpox. What is RV? what aspects of smallpox allowed it to be successful? Ring vaccination, when you vaccinated people in an area in a circle, quarantined the middle till they got better or died. It’s anthroponotic. No incubation period, so if they were sick the got the symptoms very rapidly. Lots of propaganda educating people.
61. The history of ICU’s came about from outbreaks of which viral disease? A. Polio B. Measles C. Ebola D. Influenza A. Polio
62. Polio Agent Polio Virus AKA polio myelitis(inflammation around myelin around nerves.)
Polio TransmissionFecal-oral
Polio Which president FDR
Polio Prevention vaccine
63. What were some beneficial medical changes that came about from polio outbreaks in the United States?rehabilitation and physical therapy, rise of nurses
64. T/F: Very few people who contract the polio virus show the paralytic, neurologic symptoms most often associated with polio True
65. Who are the two most accredited people for developing vaccines for polio?Salk and Sabin
66. For influenza, what do the H and N stand for? A. The animals where the virus came from B. The protein antigens on the outer membrane of the virus C. Geographic locations where the virus came from D. The different species of influenzathey are the the proteins on the outside of the virus. The H stands for Hemagglutinin and the N stands for Neuraminidase.
67. Which influenza outbreak killed approximately 5% of the world’s population? A. The Spanish Flu of 1918 B. The Black Death of 1347 C. The Hong Kong Flu of 1968 D. The Asian Flu of 1958 E. The Bird Flu of 2003A. The Spanish Flu of 1918
68. Why were healthy people more likely to be killed from the Spanish Flutheir immune systems were too strong - resulted in a cytokine storm
69. Rabies Agent Rabies virus
Rabies Transmission bite - saliva
Rabies is Zoonosis of what??? warm blooded (Poikilothermic aka homeothermic)
Rabies Treatment clean wound right away with post-exposure prophylactic
70. What is the Milwaukee Protocol? What disorder did it start with? induced comas to allow body to fight off disease. First was ??
71. What are the two forms of hantavirus, and where would you find each form?1 Pulmonary syndrome (US) and 2 Hemorrhagic (Old world).
72. Where was HVPS discovered and in what year? 1993 in 4 corners area
73. HV is a zoonosis of what animals,and how is it transmitted to people? rodents, aerosolized feces
74. What does SARS stand for?Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
75. When and where did SARS originate?in China
76. It was discovered that SARS is a zoonosis of what? What intermediate host did the virus spillover to before it spilled over into humans? Bats civets. Bought the animal, killed and ate it
77. Both Hendra and Nipah viruses are emerging viral diseases. They are zoonoses of what? Bats.
Where would you find Hendra and Nipah viruses (different)? Australia - hendra virus and Bangladesh - nipah
Describe how Hendra and Nipah viruses are each transmitted to humans? hendra virus - bat to horses. Horses ?? Nepha - date palm tree - collect the sap, they feed, urinate and defecate into the bowl.
78. How many species of ebola viruses are there currently?5
79. How do ebolaviruses kill? hemorrhage, or low blood volume
80. What are the enzootic and epizootic cycles of ebola?the enzootic cycle is just maintained, like in people, some are sick and have it but not very bad, Also in gorillas and monkeys - and the epizootic cycle is much worse - causes die offs, can hurt populations. EG plague was enzootic in rats and epizootic in BATS
81. In what year, and in what countries, did ebola first spillover into people? 1976, Sudan and Democratic Republic of Congo. Outbreaks named after countries
82. What three countries did the 2013-2016 ebola virus outbreak hit hardest in terms of mortality?1. Sierra Leone 2. Guinea 3. Ivory Cote de Gua
84. What does HIV/AIDS stand for? Human Immune Deficiency Syndrome
85. HIV is a retrovirus. What does that mean? Retrovirus - RNA to DNA enters cell, uses reverse transcriptase to make DNA. Then makes more RNA virus from it
86. What is HAART stand for? Highly Active AntiRetroviral Drug Therapy
How does HAART work? don’t know which of the many drugs work, and the virus mutates fast, so if you give a bunch of drugs it's a lot harder for it to develop immunity to them all at once. You can even have multiple strains in one person’s body
Why is HAART needed? You can even have multiple strains in one person’s body
87. How is HIV transmitted? Sex, blood, congenital (mother to child)
88. Clinical AIDS can take decades to develop. Why is this good from the virus’ standpoint? it spreads before it kills the host. Viremic for earlier part of infection
89. What are three symptoms that most HIV/AIDS patients have that, often when presented simultaneously, alert physicians that the individual has AIDS? fungal tongue infection candidiasis, 2 cancer, 3
90. How does HIV kill people? secondary infection kills.
91. HIV was first discovered in what city and in what year? 1980, in L.A.
92. What are Robert Gallo’s and Luc Montagnier’s contributions to HIV? discovered it was a virus
93. HIV spilled over to humans from what kind of animals? When? Where? bushmeat from primates, HIV 1, gorillas. 1900, Africa South East Cameroon. Maintained thru sex and needle sharing . people came down to help and picked it up
94. How are protozoans individually different from bacteria, viruses, and fungi?protozoans are different from bacteria because they are Eukaryotic, and bacteria are prokaryotic. Fungi are Eukaryotic like protozoans, but they aren’t mobil. They are heterotrophic, so they eat and don't make their fuel
What is a prion?an infectious protein.
95. How is Naeglaeri fowleri transmitted? What does it do to the human body?It's transmitted in water when you inae it through your nose. It destroys brain tissue and nervous tissue.
96. What environments would you find Naeglaeri fowleri in? What does it do to the human body? water like fresh water lakes, warmed water, like has thermal pollution. NOT marine
97. Which protozoan is close to being eradicated?guinea worm
98. What is the intermediate host of the guinea worm?copepods - water flea. They are crustaceans, and are needed by the guinea worm to be transmitted. When swallowed, the copepod is destroyed in the stomach but the guinea worm lives.
99. Geographically, where would you find the last endemic cases of guinea worm? Africa
100. From the guinea worm’s perspective, why is it advantageous for the adult female worm to emerge from the lower extremities?so that she is closer to water when she emerges to lay her eggs. Easier out of the foot than the shoulder to hit a puddle. Transmission standpoint
101. What is the intermediate host of schistosomiasis? How is schisto transmitted? snails. Gets into a cut when they are free living from the snails
102. What are some biological control methods that you could use to control schistosomiasis? get rid of the snails, introduce competitor snails, introduce animals that eat the snails
103. Geographically, where is schistosomiasis one of the deadliest and most important NTD’s? Africa, a little of south America
104. What is the agent of Giardia? Giardia Landlea
105. What is the transmission cycle of Giardia? fecal-oral route, through water that infected animals or people shed it into
106. What is the agent of toxoplasmosis? Toxoplasma gondii
107. What are the routes of transmission for toxoplasmosis? feces, ingest, inhale. Contaminated foods.
108. Up to what percent of the world’s population is infected with what protozoan disease? Why are most people asymptomatic? 53% have toxoplasmosis. Most are asymptomatic because they have good immune systems
memorize

Latin names

Question Answer
Melioidosis AgentBurkholderia pseudomallei
Legionnaires Disease AgentLegionella pneumophila
Psittacosis AgentChlamydophila psittaci
Q-fever AgentCoxiella burnetii
Syphilis AgentTreponema pallidum pallidum
Cholera AgentVibrio Cholerae
Typhoid Fever AgentSalmonella typhi
C Diff AgentClostridium difficile
What is Gonorreas latin names?Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Scarlet Fever AgentStreptococcus pyogenes
Chicken pox AgentVaricella
Smallpox AgentVariola Major/minor
Polio AgentPolio Virus
Rabies AgentRabies virus
What is the agent of Giardia?Giardia Landlea
What is the agent of toxoplasmosis?Toxoplasma gondii
memorize

Latin names

Question Answer
Melioidosis AgentBurkholderia pseudomallei
Legionnaires Disease AgentLegionella pneumophila
Psittacosis AgentChlamydophila psittaci
Q-fever AgentCoxiella burnetii
Syphilis AgentTreponema pallidum pallidum
Cholera AgentVibrio Cholerae
Typhoid Fever AgentSalmonella typhi
C Diff AgentClostridium difficile
What is Gonorreas latin names?Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Scarlet Fever AgentStreptococcus pyogenes
Chicken pox AgentVaricella
Smallpox AgentVariola Major/minor
Polio AgentPolio Virus
Rabies AgentRabies virus
What is the agent of Giardia?Giardia Landlea
What is the agent of toxoplasmosis?Toxoplasma gondii
memorize